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Бакалаврская программа «История»

Stalin and Stalinism in Russian History

2021/2022
Учебный год
ENG
Обучение ведется на английском языке
3
Кредиты
Статус:
Курс обязательный
Когда читается:
3-й курс, 1, 2 модуль

Преподаватель

Course Syllabus

Abstract

This online course presents the life and deeds of Joseph Stalin, the leader of the Soviet Union from 1924 till 1953. It discusses the reasons for his actions and their results, as well as the causes of his popularity in Russia today. It offers an analysis of the phenomenon of Stalinism and of its significance for Russia and beyond. In the late 1920s – early 1930s Stalin directed the massive and rapid industrialisation of the country and the forced collectivisation of its agriculture. The industrialisation was based on forced labour, and collectivisation on repression, but both helped to create the material base for the Soviet defence industry. In the late 1930s Stalin unleashed mass terror against the Soviet people, in which millions perished. In his view this helped to rid the country of any potential internal enemies on the eve of the coming war. The USSR, together with its allies, won the Second World War, but at the cost of dozens of millions of lives. Stalin was instrumental in creating the post-war order. The system which he created in the 1930s shaped the USSR as it was during his lifetime and for decades after his death. It also influenced the lives of millions of people beyond the Soviet borders. Stalin and his methods remain popular among significant segments of the Russian population to this day. The course is designed for all those who want to know more about the history of Russia, particularly in the 20th century. It will enable those who take it to develop an informed understanding of the Stalin era and of the phenomenon of Stalinism. It can be taken independently or as a distance learning supplement to the off-line courses on Soviet history.
Learning Objectives

Learning Objectives

  • To acquaint students with the main events and problems of the Stalin era of Soviet history.
  • To acquaint students with the main features of Stalinism as a historical phenomenon.
  • To get students to understand relations between power and society in the Stalin era.
  • To develop in students an understanding of the reasons for the popularity of Stalin and Stalinism in Russia today.
  • To acquaint students with the historiography of the Stalin era and Stalinism in Russian history.
Expected Learning Outcomes

Expected Learning Outcomes

  • By the end of the course the students should know the main events and problems of the Stalin era of Soviet history
  • They should understand relations between power and society in the Stalin era and be able to define and discuss similar patterns in other countries.
  • By the end of the course the students should know the main events and problems of the Stalin era of Soviet history,
  • They should understand the reasons for the popularity of Stalin and Stalinism in Russia today.
  • They should know and understand the main features of the historiography of the Stalin era and Stalinism.
  • To develop in students an understanding of the reasons for the popularity of Stalin and Stalinism in Russia today.
Course Contents

Course Contents

  • Week 1: Introduction
    1. Introduction: Stalin and Stalinism – why this course? The importance of the course topic. Course structure; requirements and outcomes. 2. The Country in which Stalin Was Born. Russian society in the late 19th-early 20th century. Narodniks, terrorists and other revolutionaries. Russian Marxism. The Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) - the Party of Lenin. 3. The Birth of a Revolutionary. Stalin's roots, education and early revolutionary activities. His first steps in the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party
  • Week 2: Stalin in the Revolution.
    4. Between the Two Revolutions. The 1905 revolution and its results. Stalin in Transcaucasia. His first family. Party activities in Central Russia and abroad. Stalin’s rise through the party ranks and his membership of the Central Committee. Arrests and exile. 5. The Road to Government. The February revolution and dual power. Stalin in the revolution. Lenin’s return from exile and the changing party line. The July 1917 uprising and the repression. Stalin’s increasing importance. Kamenev, Zinoviev and Trotsky. The October revolution and the first Bolshevik government.
  • Week 3: The Leader.
    6. The Road to Power First Soviet decrees and their results. The Communist International. The Extraordinary Commission. The Civil War. The cost of the revolution and of the Civil War. Stalin at the fronts of the Civil War. His second marriage. The Kronstadt uprising and Lenin’s New Economic Policy. Power struggle: Stalin, Trotsky and Lenin. The general secretary. 7. First among Equals Lenin’s attempts to demote Stalin. Lenin’s death. Stalin’s campaign against Trotsky. The campaign against Zinoviev and Kamenev (leftist opposition). The United Opposition and its defeat. ‘Strengthening the rear’. Stalin’s victory.
  • Week 4: Stalin’s Revolution from above
    8. Collectivisation The New Economic Policy: achievements and failures. Stalin’s trip to Siberia and the end of the NEP. The demise of the ‘Rightist Opposition’. The kolkhozes and the fate of the ‘kulaks’. Peasant uprisings. ‘Dizzy with Success’. The results of collectivisation. The Great Famine. 9. Industrialisation The reasons for industrialisation. The place of collectivisation in the industrialisation project. The first 5-year plan: achievements and failures. The role of prison labour. The long-term influence of Stalin’s industrialisation on the Soviet economy. The retreat. The 1936 constitution.
  • Week 5: The Dictator
    10. The Great Terror. The Shakhty trial. ‘The Industrial Party’. Kirov’s murder and the Leningrad trials. The Kremlin affair. The ‘Trotskyist-Zinovievite Terrorist Centre’. The demise of the top military command. The ethnic purges. The Great Terror. 11. The New Man and the New Order Stalin’s reasons for the Great Terror. The external threat. The results of the purges and the new Soviet elite. Stalin’s dictatorial power.
  • Week 6: Stalin’s War
    12. Stalin and the Coming War. The Stalin-Hitler pact. The Soviet occupation of Western Ukraine and Western Belarus. The Katyn massacre. The ‘Winter War’. The fall of France and the Tripartite Pact. The Soviet army and economy on the eve of the German invasion. 13. The Retreat The first days of the war. The reconfiguration of the dictatorship. Soviet losses in the first months of the war. Stalin in the defence of Moscow. The German offensive in the South. Stalin’s weak and strong sides as a military leader.
  • Week 7: Stalin’s Victory
    14. The Long Road to Victory Stalingrad and Leningrad. Stalin’s leadership in the second half of the war. Changes in the rear. The treatment of the Soviet population in the liberated territories. The Soviet military in the Soviet liberated territories and abroad. 15. The Post-War Order in the Making Churchill’s 1944 visit to Moscow. Stalin’s policy in Poland. Stalin at Yalta. Growing discord between the allies. The Soviet offensive on Berlin. Stalin at Potsdam. The Stalinisation of the newly acquired Soviet territories and East European countries. Yugoslavia. The blockade of West Berlin and the Berlin Airlift. Relations with communist China.
  • Week 8: The Last Years of the Dictatorship
    16. The Return of the Old Order. The old guard’s fall from grace. Stalin’s reshuffle of formal and informal power structures. The Leningrad Affair. The purge of the security service and the Mingrelian Affair. The reconfiguration of the party leadership and the return of the dictatorship. 17.The Soviet Economy, the Cold War and the New Mobilisation. The state of the Soviet economy in the first post-war years. The currency reform. The Korean War and the new build-up of the Soviet army. The campaigns against ‘kowtowing to the West’ and against ‘cosmopolitanism’. The ‘Doctors’ Plot’.
  • Week 9: Stalin and Stalinism
    19. Is there a definition of Stalinism? The Roots of Stalinism. The existing definitions and explanations of Stalin’s regime. The nature of Stalinism. Historical conditions that made Stalinism possible. 20. The Historiography of Stalinism A survey of academic literature on Stalin and Stalinism
  • Week 10: Stalinism after Stalin
    21. The Resistance of the System Attempts at reforming the Soviet system from the top and the reasons for their failure. 22. In the Footsteps of Stalin. Stalin’s followers abroad. The reasons for the lure of Stalinism. Mao Zedong’s Stalinism in China. 23. Stalinism in Russia Today. The radical de-Stalinisation of the early 1990s. Stalin’s popularity in Russia today: its manifestations and the reasons for it. Does this mean a return to Stalinism?
Assessment Elements

Assessment Elements

  • non-blocking Тестирование в формате открытого ответа на вопросы
  • non-blocking Тестирование в формате открытого ответа на вопросы
  • non-blocking Тестирование в формате открытого ответа на вопросы
  • non-blocking Тестирование в формате открытого ответа на вопросы
  • non-blocking Тестирование в формате открытого ответа на вопросы
  • non-blocking Тестирование в формате открытого ответа на вопросы
  • non-blocking Тестирование в формате открытого ответа на вопросы
  • non-blocking Тестирование в формате открытого ответа на вопросы
  • non-blocking Тестирование в формате открытого ответа на вопросы
  • non-blocking Тестирование в формате открытого ответа на вопросы
  • non-blocking Эссе для взаимного оценивания
Interim Assessment

Interim Assessment

  • Interim assessment (2 module)
    0.05 * Тестирование в формате открытого ответа на вопросы + 0.05 * Тестирование в формате открытого ответа на вопросы + 0.1 * Тестирование в формате открытого ответа на вопросы + 0.1 * Тестирование в формате открытого ответа на вопросы + 0.1 * Тестирование в формате открытого ответа на вопросы + 0.1 * Тестирование в формате открытого ответа на вопросы + 0.05 * Тестирование в формате открытого ответа на вопросы + 0.05 * Тестирование в формате открытого ответа на вопросы + 0.05 * Тестирование в формате открытого ответа на вопросы + 0.05 * Тестирование в формате открытого ответа на вопросы + 0.3 * Эссе для взаимного оценивания
Bibliography

Bibliography

Recommended Core Bibliography

  • Fitzpatrick, S. (2007). Revisionism in Soviet History. History & Theory, 46(4), 77–91. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2303.2007.00429.x
  • R. W. Davies, Mark Harrison, Oleg Khlevniuk, & Stephen G. Wheatcroft. (2018). The Industrialisation of Soviet Russia Volume 7: The Soviet Economy and the Approach of War, 1937–1939. Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Stephen Kotkin. (2014). Stalin : Paradoxes of Power, 1878-1928. Penguin Books.
  • Stephen Kotkin. (2014). Stalin : Waiting for Hitler, 1929-1941. Penguin Books.
  • Yoram Gorlizki, & Oleg Khlevniuk. (2004). Cold Peace : Stalin and the Soviet Ruling Circle, 1945-1953. Oxford University Press.

Recommended Additional Bibliography

  • Fitzpatrick, S. (1999). Everyday Stalinism : Ordinary Life in Extraordinary Times: Soviet Russia in the 1930s. New York: Oxford University Press. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsebk&AN=169117
  • Fitzpatrick, S., & Geyer, M. (2009). Beyond Totalitarianism : Stalinism and Nazism Compared. New York, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsebk&AN=263477
  • Khlevniuk, O. (2018). Stalin’s War Cabinet: ‘Normalisation’ and Political Dynamics of the Dictatorship. Europe-Asia Studies, 70(7), 1019–1035. https://doi.org/10.1080/09668136.2018.1489045
  • Kotkin, S. (1997). Magnetic Mountain : Stalinism As a Civilization (Vol. [Pbk. ed., 1997]). Berkeley, Calif: University of California Press. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsebk&AN=21251
  • Stalinism : new directions / ed. by Sheila Fitzpatrick. (2000). London [u.a.]: Routledge. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edswao&AN=edswao.080753531
  • Yoram Gorlizki, & Oleg Khlevniuk. (2020). Substate Dictatorship : Networks, Loyalty, and Institutional Change in the Soviet Union. Yale University Press.