• A
  • A
  • A
  • АБB
  • АБB
  • АБB
  • А
  • А
  • А
  • А
  • А
Обычная версия сайта
Версия для слабовидящихЛичный кабинет сотрудника ВШЭПоиск
Магистратура 2018/2019

Новые управленческие и деловые решения, основанные на применении технологий

Статус: Курс обязательный (Прототипирование городов будущего)
Направление: 07.04.04. Градостроительство
Когда читается: 1-й курс, 1 семестр
Формат изучения: Full time
Прогр. обучения: Прототипирование городов будущего
Язык: английский
Кредиты: 4

Course Syllabus

Abstract

This course aims to provide an overview of the interaction between functioning of the city and business approaches which support every urban project: from the construction of buildings and operation of utility networks to the different services that are offered in the city. During the course students will study the relationship between investments in the urban systems and their operations. This course will provide students with the instruments to analyze development projects, urban public projects and public private partnerships with a particular focus on studying modern business models that support the principles of a distributed city.
Learning Objectives

Learning Objectives

  • The course covers the analysis of different models of creating and managing the urban systems, such as private, public, public private partnership and social management.
  • It also includes the study of business models for managing buildings, urban infrastructure and urban services.
  • The course focuses on the development of the analytical skills, writing logical texts and delivering public presentations.
  • Finally, the students are expected to get involved in the research and propose new business models for existing or new city services based on the “distributed city” principles.
Expected Learning Outcomes

Expected Learning Outcomes

  • In this topic, we start with the key definitions, such as business models, prototype, future city and explore, how business models operate in urban environment. The relation of business models to other notions in management (business planning, management, quality, control, government, governance) is reviewed. Different types of business models are analyzed such B2B, B2C and B2G. Using the examples of Uber and Gett we review, how business models shape contemporary cities.
  • We study how to create the business model in practice. We review the key elements of business model such as infrastructure, offering, customers, finances and resources. The book of one of the guru’s in business modelling, Osterwalder is studied.
  • Goals and objectives of business plans. Basic information users. Classification of business plans. Existing standards for writing business plans. Typical structure of the business plan. Summary as the first section of the business plan. Rules for the preparation of summaries. "Elevator pitch" as a model for talking with the investor.
  • The structure of the marketing plan. The model of Porter's competitive forces. The concept of the driving forces of the industry. Methods of gathering information about competitors. Benchmarking. SWOT analysis. Description of products. Modern types of goods and services. The Boston Consulting Group model (BCG). the "sales funnel" model. Planning of pricing. Segmentation of consumers.
  • The main business processes in the company. Objectives of designing organizational structures. Types of organizational structures. Elements of the typical organizational structure of the business being created. Choice of the optimal organizational structure. Definition of staff functions. Development of employee motivation system. Structure of the production plan. Fixed assets. Scheme of production flows. Types of production costs. Using economies of scale to reduce production costs.
  • Structure of the financial plan. Technology of drawing up a financial plan. Use of software products in the calculations. Types of budgets. Planning of sales proceeds. The budget of materials. The budget of labor costs. Calculation of costs. The budget of commercial and administrative expenses. The budget of general production expenses. Determination of a favorable taxation regime. Plan of incomes and expenses. Scenario planning. Sources of business financing.
  • This block discusses what is the value and how measure it. We study, how to create the value in government and business and what is the difference. We review the connection of public value with operations capacity, legitimacy and support. We discuss then, how to build the company, which offers services or goods with high added value.
  • Time value of money is one of the foundations of management and business model development. We review such definitions as present value, future value, discount rate. We define the main types of cashflow such as free cashflow and net cash flow. We review different ways of calculating cash flow (direct and indirect). The concept of changing the value of money in time. Discounting of cash flows. Criteria for the evaluation of investment projects.
  • This section analyzes different models of urban governance. First, we define the concept of urban governance and urban systems. Second, we explore 4 main urban models: managerial, corporatist, progrowth and welfare. Further, we explore which model is better for a particular city such as Moscow, New York or London. Fourth, we examine the models for renaturing brownfield areas such as classical or cultural landscape restoration model.
  • This class explores how public private partnerships operate and what is the role of NGOs in city planning. We review the cases of public private partnership in Russia, Burkina Faso and other countries. We discuss the role of NGOs in city planning and how NGOs in the U.S. and Russian Federation operate using the example of Pittsburgh, USA and Moscow, Russia.
  • We explore the concept of distributed city and see in the relation to other contemporary approaches to urban planning such as smart cities, compact cities, renewable energy city, carbon neutral cities and resilient cities. We also track, how cities were shaped in Russia and Soviet Union and how approaches to urban planning have evolved. We discuss consumerist society and if knowledge about the consumer society is important for business modelling.
  • We define the concept of a compact city and urban sprawl. A compact city allows higher energy saving and provides other benefits such as more interaction between people. We study, how different countries deal with urban sprawl (Russia, United States).
  • We take the students through the concept of smart cities and its components: smart governance, smart energy, smart building, smart mobility, smart infrastructure, smart technology, smart healthcare and smart citizen. We compare smart cities and resilient cities. We also explore, how countries and cities present their smart cities worldwide (Olympic Games, FIFA, EXPO and so on).
  • We study the concept of sustainable development and its 3 dimensions such as economic, environmental and social and related notions, including strong and weak sustainability, carrying capacity, carbon footprint. We also learn about brownfields in Moscow and in other areas and review how these areas can be recovered. We carry out the game Ecolopoli.
  • We discuss the concept of eco-design and examples in the city. We analyze related notions such as energy efficiency, solar panels, water fountains. We also see, what are the benefits of eco-design for the city (economic, social and educational).
  • We debate what is the role of investments in cities and how the government can regulate it. Besides, we review different tools of measuring investment climate such as doing business approach and global competitiveness index.
  • We study how to create the models for innovative businesses using classic and contemporary approaches such a lean startup. We review the cases of successful start-ups and the cases of start-ups, which failed.
  • We discuss the definition of strategy and how the strategy is related to business models. We study the examples of good and bad strategies. Also we explore how to develop a strategy that can be implemented in the dynamic environment. We find out, how businesses and cities can deal with “black swans”.
  • One of the best indicators of business performance is business valuation and its change, however it is quite difficult to measure it. Often the valuation of innovative companies is so complex, that investors analyze the team qualification and evaluate the business performance primarily using this criterion.
  • We review the founding principles of lean startup, such as entrepreneurs are everywhere, entrepreneurship is management, validated learning, build-measure-learn and innovation accounting and discuss if there are useful for business modelling.
  • We discuss how companies can manage their growth, using the classic approach of Robert Higgins. We clarify, what is the difference between growth and development.
  • Implementing a new business model might be tricky, because the external environment changes dynamically. We discuss how to apply a business model in unpredictable environment.
  • During this session we learn, how to present business models and discuss the common pitfalls associated with presentations: loss of eye contact, reading, but not speaking, too much information on slides.
Course Contents

Course Contents

  • Introduction to business models in urban environment
    In this topic, we start with the key definitions, such as business models, prototype, future city and explore, how business models operate in urban environment. The relation of business models to other notions in management (business planning, management, quality, control, government, governance) is reviewed. Different types of business models are analyzed such B2B, B2C and B2G. Using the examples of Uber and Gett we review, how business models shape contemporary cities.
  • Business models design and canvas development
    We study how to create the business model in practice. We review the key elements of business model such as infrastructure, offering, customers, finances and resources. The book of one of the guru’s in business modelling, Osterwalder is studied.
  • Contents and structure of business plan
    Goals and objectives of business plans. Basic information users. Classification of business plans. Existing standards for writing business plans. Typical structure of the business plan. Summary as the first section of the business plan. Rules for the preparation of summaries. "Elevator pitch" as a model for talking with the investor.
  • Market analysis
    The structure of the marketing plan. Marketing research. Factors determining the economic features of the industry. External strategic audit. The model of Porter's competitive forces. The concept of the driving forces of the industry. Methods of gathering information about competitors. Benchmarking. SWOT analysis. Description of products. Modern types of goods and services. The Boston Consulting Group model (BCG). The process of making buy decision: the "sales funnel" model. Types of sales. Peculiarities of sales forecasting. Planning of pricing. Positioning features of products. Segmentation of consumers. Product-market matrix. Development of a product promotion program. Modern technologies of product promotion: ATL, BTL, TTL. The technique of "cold calls".
  • Organizational plan. Production plan
    The main business processes in the company. Objectives of designing organizational structures. Types of organizational structures. Elements of the typical organizational structure of the business being created. Choice of the optimal organizational structure. Definition of staff functions. Development of employee motivation system. Structure of the production plan. Fixed assets. Scheme of production flows. Types of production costs. Using economies of scale to reduce production costs. Organization of raw material supplies. Production program. Quality management to maintain product competitiveness.
  • Financial plan
    Structure of the financial plan. Technology of drawing up a financial plan. Use of software products in the calculations. Types of budgets. Planning of sales proceeds. The budget of materials. The budget of labor costs. Calculation of costs. The budget of commercial and administrative expenses. The budget of general production expenses. Determination of a favorable taxation regime. Plan of incomes and expenses. Scenario planning. Sources of business financing. Accounting of bank requirements for obtaining a loan to open a business. Schemes of depreciation of loans. The concept of cash flow. Drawing up the forecast of cash receipts and payments (cash flow). Forecasting the financial needs of the company. Calculation of the financial plan for a manufacturing enterprise and organizations from the service sector.
  • Value creation model for the future cities
    This block discusses what is the value and how measure it. We study, how to create the value in government and business and what is the difference. We review the connection of public value with operations capacity, legitimacy and support. We discuss then, how to build the company, which offers services or goods with high added value.
  • Time value of money and cashflow management
    Time value of money is one of the foundations of management and business model development. We review such definitions as present value, future value, discount rate. We define the main types of cashflow such as free cashflow and net cash flow. We review different ways of calculating cash flow (direct and indirect). The concept of changing the value of money in time. Discounting of cash flows. Criteria for the evaluation of investment projects. Net present value (NPV). Definition of the discount rate of the project. Calculation of the internal rate of return (IRR) of the project. Technologies for calculating the main financial indicators of the project. Profitability of sales. Payback period. Calculation of break-even point for the project.
  • Models of urban governance
    This section analyzes different models of urban governance. First, we define the concept of urban governance and urban systems. Second, we explore 4 main urban models: managerial, corporatist, progrowth and welfare. Further, we explore which model is better for a particular city such as Moscow, New York or London. Fourth, we examine the models for renaturing brownfield areas such as classical or cultural landscape restoration model.
  • Public private partnerships. NGOs in city planning.
    This class explores how public private partnerships operate and what is the role of NGOs in city planning. We review the cases of public private partnership in Russia, Burkina Faso and other countries. We discuss the role of NGOs in city planning and how NGOs in the U.S. and Russian Federation operate using the example of Pittsburgh, USA and Moscow, Russia.
  • “Distributed city” principles, resilient cities
    We explore the concept of distributed city and see in the relation to other contemporary approaches to urban planning such as smart cities, compact cities, renewable energy city, carbon neutral cities and resilient cities. We also track, how cities were shaped in Russia and Soviet Union and how approaches to urban planning have evolved. We discuss consumerist society and if knowledge about the consumer society is important for business modelling.
  • Business models for a compact city. Urban spral.
    We define the concept of a compact city and urban sprawl. A compact city allows higher energy saving and provides other benefits such as more interaction between people. We study, how different countries deal with urban sprawl (Russia, United States). According to OECD “the current urban and transport policies are promoting an excessive growth in car trips to the city and its outskirts, being this the cause for the rise in traffic congestion, air pollution, noise, acid rain and the risk of global warming”. Fortunately, many cities develop public reliable transportation. Energy consumption per person is four times higher in the automobile than the bus according to Frediani, which is typical for urban sprawl.
  • Smart cities as a new stage in urban development
    We take the students through the concept of smart cities and its components: smart governance, smart energy, smart building, smart mobility, smart infrastructure, smart technology, smart healthcare and smart citizen. We compare smart cities and resilient cities. We also explore, how countries and cities present their smart cities worldwide (Olympic Games, FIFA, EXPO and so on).
  • Sustainable development and ecosystem services in urban planning. Brownfields
    We study the concept of sustainable development and its 3 dimensions such as economic, environmental and social and related notions, including strong and weak sustainability, carrying capacity, carbon footprint. We also learn about brownfields in Moscow and in other areas and review how these areas can be recovered. We carry out the game Ecolopoli.
  • Pros and cons of the eco-design and its economic impact
    We discuss the concept of eco-design and examples in the city. We analyze related notions such as energy efficiency, solar panels, water fountains. We also see, what are the benefits of eco-design for the city (economic, social and educational).
  • Investments and urban systems
    We debate what is the role of investments in cities and how the government can regulate it. Besides, we review different tools of measuring investment climate such as doing business approach and global competitiveness index.
  • Developing models for innovative businesses. Start-up models
    We study how to create the models for innovative businesses using classic and contemporary approaches such a lean startup. We review the cases of successful start-ups and the cases of start-ups, which failed.
  • Aligning strategy and business models. Strategic plans
    We discuss the definition of strategy and how the strategy is related to business models. We study the examples of good and bad strategies. Also we explore how to develop a strategy that can be implemented in the dynamic environment. We find out, how businesses and cities can deal with “black swans”.
  • Business performance and balanced scorecard. Effectiveness and efficiency
    One of the best indicators of business performance is business valuation and its change, however it is quite difficult to measure it. Often the valuation of innovative companies is so complex, that investors analyze the team qualification and evaluate the business performance primarily using this criterion. In the last few years, several M&A were carried out on the basis of team qualification: the investor explores the team and makes the decision if it is able to reach the goals. Actually, team qualification is even more important the number of workers: smart creatives are crucial for business performance.
  • Managing growth. Business development
    We discuss how companies can manage their growth, using the classic approach of Robert Higgins. We clarify, what is the difference between growth and development.
  • Lean startup methodology
    We review the founding principles of lean startup, such as entrepreneurs are everywhere, entrepreneurship is management, validated learning, build-measure-learn and innovation accounting and discuss if there are useful for business modelling.
  • Implementing new business models
    Implementing a new business model might be tricky, because the external environment changes dynamically. We discuss how to apply a business model in unpredictable environment.
  • Presenting business models
    During this session we learn, how to present business models and discuss the common pitfalls associated with presentations: loss of eye contact, reading, but not speaking, too much information on slides.
Assessment Elements

Assessment Elements

  • non-blocking Participation in class discussion
  • non-blocking Business Project
  • non-blocking Oral Exam
Interim Assessment

Interim Assessment

  • Interim assessment (1 semester)
    0.4 * Business Project + 0.2 * Oral Exam + 0.4 * Participation in class discussion
Bibliography

Bibliography

Recommended Core Bibliography

  • Adopting and applying eco-design techniques : a practitioners perspective. (2009). Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsbas&AN=edsbas.6E1A4BA5
  • Alexander Osterwalder, Yves Pigneur, & Christopher L. Tucci. (2005). Clarifying Business Models: Origins, Present and Future of the Concept. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsbas&AN=edsbas.9253EA35
  • Erling Holden, & Ingrid T. Norland. (2005). Three Challenges for the Compact City as a Sustainable Urban Form: Household Consumption of Energy and Transport in Eight Residential Areas in the Greater Oslo Region. Urban Studies, (12), 2145. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsrep&AN=edsrep.a.sae.urbstu.v42y2005i12p2145.2166
  • Frediani, J. C., Giacobbe, N., Ravella, O., & Pistola, J. (2013). Compact City-Sprawl City: two interacting urban forms. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsbas&AN=edsbas.C6964CD5
  • Grundy, T. (2006). Rethinking and reinventing Michael Porter’s five forces model. Strategic Change, 15(5), 213–229. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsc.764
  • Higgins, R. C. (1977). How Much Growth Can A Firm Afford? Financial Management (1972), 6(3), 7–16. https://doi.org/10.2307/3665251
  • Higgins, R. C. (1981). Sustainable Growth Under Inflation. Financial Management (1972), 10(4), 36–40. https://doi.org/10.2307/3665217
  • Innes, J. E., & Booher, D. E. (2000). Indicators for Sustainable Communities: A Strategy Building on Complexity Theory and Distributed Intelligence. Planning Theory & Practice, 1(2), 173–186. https://doi.org/10.1080/14649350020008378
  • Osterwalder, A., Clark, T., & Pigneur, Y. (2010). Business Model Generation : A Handbook for Visionaries, Game Changers, and Challengers. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsebk&AN=335366
  • Porter, M. E. (2008). The Five Competitive Forces That Shape Strategy. Harvard Business Review, 86(1), 78–93. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=bsu&AN=28000138
  • Richard A. Brealey. (1986). An Introduction to Risk and Return from Common Stocks, 2nd Edition. The MIT Press. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsrep&AN=edsrep.b.mtp.titles.0262521164
  • Ries, E. (2011). The Lean Startup : How Today’s Entrepreneurs Use Continuous Innovation to Create Radically Successful Businesses. New York: Currency. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsebk&AN=733896
  • Shafer, S. M., Smith, H. J., & Linder, J. C. (2005). The power of business models. Business Horizons, (3), 199. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsrep&AN=edsrep.a.eee.bushor.v48y2005i3p199.207
  • Smart Cities in Europe. (2011). Journal of Urban Technology, 18(2), 65–82. https://doi.org/10.1080/10630732.2011.601117
  • Weber, R. (2002). Extracting Value from the City: Neoliberalism and Urban Redevelopment. Antipode, 34(3), 519–540. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8330.00253

Recommended Additional Bibliography

  • De Sousa, C. A. (2006). Urban brownfields redevelopment in Canada: the role of local government. Canadian Geographer, 50(3), 392–407. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-0064.2006.00148.x
  • Gómez-Baggethun, E., & Barton, D. N. (2013). Classifying and valuing ecosystem services for urban planning. Ecological Economics, (C), 235. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsrep&AN=edsrep.a.eee.ecolec.v86y2013icp235.245
  • Johnson, M. W., Christensen, C. M., & Kagermann, H. (2008). Reinventing Your Business Model. (cover story). Harvard Business Review, 86(12), 50–59. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=bsu&AN=35386627
  • Tsai, W., & Ghoshal, S. (1998). Social Capital and Value Creation: The Role of Intrafirm Networks. Academy of Management Journal, 41(4), 464–476. https://doi.org/10.2307/257085