Магистратура
2019/2020

## Прикладной системный анализ

Лучший по критерию «Полезность курса для расширения кругозора и разностороннего развития»

Статус:
Курс обязательный (Системная и программная инженерия)

Направление:
09.04.04. Программная инженерия

Кто читает:
Департамент программной инженерии

Когда читается:
1-й курс, 1-4 модуль

Формат изучения:
без онлайн-курса

Преподаватели:
Дегтярев Константин Юрьевич

Прогр. обучения:
Системная и программная инженерия

Язык:
английский

Кредиты:
5

### Course Syllabus

#### Abstract

The course "Applied System Analysis" is offered to students of the Master Program "System and Software Engineering" (area code 09.04.04) in the School of Software Engineering, Faculty of Computer Science (FCS) of the National Research University Higher School of Economics (HSE). The course is a part of MS curriculum pool of compulsory courses (1st year, Base Clause – General Scientific disciplines of the academic year’s curriculum, M.1 – General Courses of Specialization), and it is a four-module course (semester A quartile 1 thru semester B quartile 4).

#### Learning Objectives

- The main objective of the course "Applied System Analysis" is to present, examine and discuss with students fundamentals and principles of both System Analysis and Systems Thinking that emerged in response to (1) steadily growing complexity of problems arising in various areas of day-to-day and professional human activity, (2) necessity to structure problems and to present (viz. to develop mental or formal model(s)) and to assess emerged situations complemented with a search for acceptable solutions (problem solving).

#### Expected Learning Outcomes

- To formulate clearly potential role, attractive aspects / disputable points of SA approach use when solving problems arising in the present professional activity; to demonstrate the competence to credibly defend viewpoint(s).
- To know the origins of systems analysis (SA) and history of SA emergence, basic concepts SA is grounded on.
- To know different definitions of the system; to understand the importance of systems thinking in solving engineering problems (and not only).
- To understand the importance of a systemic approach applied to complex problems arising within various human activities and to engineered systems, classification of problems (well-structured, unstructured and ill-structured).
- To understand the layered approach to systems thinking, the need to gradually move from the level of observed events to the identification of patterns and to further understanding of the system’s (problem’s) structure.
- To know the specifics of causal loop diagrams (CLD as models), their use in systems studying; to be able to identify in CLD balancing (B) and reinforcing (R) loops that determine the dynamics of systems (problems).
- To understand peculiarities of hard and soft approaches (methodologies) in systems modelling.
- To understand heuristic approaches to problem solving (means-ends analysis, hill climbing, approach by analogies); to be able to apply them in solving problems.
- To understand problem structuring approaches and to know how to improve insight (to make progress in analysis) into ill-structured problems.
- To understand the purpose and relevance of a stakeholder analysis; to know the ways to perform a stakeholder analysis.
- To know basic definitions related to Q-analysis (polyhedral dynamics) procedure.
- To understand the details and to carry out steps relating to the calculation of the structural vector of complex К (system’s model) and eccentricities of simplices.
- To understand how to draw conclusions concerning the peculiarities of system’s structure on the basis of analysis’ results obtained.
- To understand the particulars of working with experts, using Delphi method.
- To understand the details of multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approaches covered in the course and apply them while solving the learning tasks.
- To know about the existence of different types of uncertainty; to know how to represent formally the fuzziness inherent in many practical cases; to understand the specific features of MCDA approaches that take into account the factor of fuzziness (of models parameters).

#### Course Contents

- Introduction and overview of the course (in particular, comments concerning grading policy applied and course-related control activities).
- Origins of systems analysis (SA). Notions of system, core definitions of a system (G.Klir, M.Mesarovic, et al.), systems thinking, problem-solving and systems engineering (definitions and comments). System analysis (SA) - definitions, stages of SA. System approach and system paradigm. Problem and system – is there any relationship between them? What is a system in problem-solving?
- Classification of systems (problems); systems, problems and mental models, mental models and problem solving. SPE-pyramid (approach to grasp system’s structure), causal schemes (Causal Loop Diagrams / CLD), definition and basic features – what can we “see” in CLD? Examples and considerations.
- Organizations and system approach. The formation of the system approach, its peculiarities. Systems and complexity. The role of models (modeling) in SA. Models of systems. Problematic situation, problem as a system, its analysis and modeling. Transition from a problematic situation to problem.
- Systems thinking. Integrity of system. Hard and soft methodologies in the analysis of systems. Operations research, optimization problems (hard models in System Analysis / SA), Next Release Problem (NRP).
- Structural analysis in systems studying, Q-analysis (polyhedral dynamics) – notions of simplex and complex, structural vector, structural complexity, eccentricities of simplices. SA as a methodology of problem solving, thinking in a «big picture» terms while analyzing the problem (cont-d).

#### Assessment Elements

- Final Course Examination (FE)Oral presentation of the work (HW) done + questions/answers session… Оценка за дисциплину выставляется в соответствии с формулой оценивания всех пройденных элементов контроля; отдельный экзамен не проводится, онлайн-сеанс (в MS Teams) для обсуждения итоговых результатов (всё соответствует изначально утвержденной программе дисциплины)
- Homework (HW)Written report (paper) following IEEE, Elsevier or Springer LNCS publ. template
- Course Examination (CE)Computer-based test or written test (duration – 60 to 70 min.)
- Written Quiz (WQ1)
- Written Quiz (WQ2)
- Written Quiz (WQ3)

#### Interim Assessment

- Interim assessment (2 module)Progress (interim) and resultant grades are made up of the following components: • Course Examination (CE) – end of Module 2 (Semester A Quartile 2), and calculation of the interim result CE implies the arrangement of (option 1) computer-based testing + written test or (option 2) written test only for all students enrolled (the decision is made by the course instructor at a closer time to the exam’s date; all students are informed about this decision in advance). Subject area covered by tests embraces those course’ topics that are discussed during both lectures and seminars up to the date announced. The computer-based test ( ) may contain both single-choice and multiple-choice questions; in that case the grade for the test is specified by the test program automatically. As a second option, written test ( ) includes 1 to 2 questions (letter ‘T’ means «test»). If student misses ICE because of some valid reason (only this case is covered by the document!), situation has to be discussed with representatives (managers) of the Departmental (Program’s) Office of Studies. The course examination (CE) is assessed on the ten-point scale (usual rounding takes place after weighted sum’s calculation is completed), and the grade is calculated as follows (depends on the option is use as mentioned earlier): (option 1) , (option 2) . The interim assessment (IAModule_2) is cumulative, i.e. it takes into account all grades obtained by the end of Module 2 (examination week period). Please, pay attention to the fact that the missed quiz (WQ1) is not eligible for retaking. Thus, the interim grade is calculated as a weighted sum of individual components, i.e. , no blocking. • Homework assignment (HW) – 2nd -3rd modules (Sem. A Quartile 2 – Sem. B Quartile 3) is prepared by students individually (x1) or in groups by two (x2, at most), herewith each student (group) must prepare electronic (PDF format solely) report, which is of the form of a scientific paper (6 to 9 pages) in IEEE or other well-established formats (following IEEE, Elsevier or Springer LNCS publ. format template – selected links will be provided at course’ webpages in LMS; see also https://www.overleaf.com/gallery/tagged/academic-journal). Students are free to choose a problem to consider based on their own interests and preferences – after approval by the instructor, the work can be started (appr. second part of December 2019). HW covers the task that is related to field of IT, Computer or Software Engineering – we should not deviate from the program’s focus. All reports must be submitted in the electronic form to the instructor through HSE Learning Management System (LMS) for consideration before the date day_x, which is set (last decade of March 2020 as a rough estimate) and announced in the beginning of Module 3. All reports are checked and graded by the instructor on ten-point scale by the end of the 4th Module as the latest, and gives the assessment for the 4th Module of the course. Important NOTE: Please, be informed in advance that failure to comply with specified deadline day_x for submission of the report leads automatically to the reduction of by 0.3 points for each delayed day. The conditions for all students should be the same, regardless of the subsequent date of HW presentation. Finally, the overall course grade on ten-point scale is obtained as (usual rounding takes place after calculations are done, no blocking), where is a grade for a text (written presentation) of the HW report (paper) as such subject to reduction, if any – see Important NOTE above, and are grades for quizzes #2 and #3, correspondingly, whereas is a grade obtained for the presentation (of the HW) done – questions related to topics covered by the course and submitted HW report can be asked to students. The resultant grade (after rounding) means successful completion of the course (grade "Pass"), while grade of 3 or lower means unsuccessful result (grade "Fail"). Student has a chance to obtain “automatic” grade (final course grade that can be only at the “excellent” level, i.e. 8, 9 or 10) without passing through FE (presentation) provided that following is satisfied, i.e. (1) all written quizzes (WQ1, WQ2 and WQ3) are graded as “very good”, “almost excellent” or above (7 or above on ten-point scale), (2) the result of O( ) is 8 or above and O( ) is 8 or above (under option 1 – see page 6), or the result of O( ) is 8 or above (under option 2 – see page 6), and (3) homework assignment (HW report / ) is graded at 8 or above (on ten-point scale). Even in these circumstances, it is strongly recommended to all students, without exceptions, to make presentations of their works (HW).
- Interim assessment (4 module)Progress (interim) and resultant grades are made up of the following components: • Course Examination (CE) – end of Module 2 (Semester A Quartile 2), and calculation of the interim result CE implies the arrangement of (option 1) computer-based testing + written test or (option 2) written test only for all students enrolled (the decision is made by the course instructor at a closer time to the exam’s date; all students are informed about this decision in advance). Subject area covered by tests embraces those course’ topics that are discussed during both lectures and seminars up to the date announced. The computer-based test ( ) may contain both single-choice and multiple-choice questions; in that case the grade for the test is specified by the test program automatically. As a second option, written test ( ) includes 1 to 2 questions (letter ‘T’ means «test»). If student misses ICE because of some valid reason (only this case is covered by the document!), situation has to be discussed with representatives (managers) of the Departmental (Program’s) Office of Studies. The course examination (CE) is assessed on the ten-point scale (usual rounding takes place after weighted sum’s calculation is completed), and the grade is calculated as follows (depends on the option is use as mentioned earlier): (option 1) , (option 2) . The interim assessment (IAModule_2) is cumulative, i.e. it takes into account all grades obtained by the end of Module 2 (examination week period). Please, pay attention to the fact that the missed quiz (WQ1) is not eligible for retaking. Thus, the interim grade is calculated as a weighted sum of individual components, i.e. , no blocking. • Homework assignment (HW) – 2nd -3rd modules (Sem. A Quartile 2 – Sem. B Quartile 3) is prepared by students individually (x1) or in groups by two (x2, at most), herewith each student (group) must prepare electronic (PDF format solely) report, which is of the form of a scientific paper (6 to 9 pages) in IEEE or other well-established formats (following IEEE, Elsevier or Springer LNCS publ. format template – selected links will be provided at course’ webpages in LMS; see also https://www.overleaf.com/gallery/tagged/academic-journal). Students are free to choose a problem to consider based on their own interests and preferences – after approval by the instructor, the work can be started (appr. second part of December 2019). HW covers the task that is related to field of IT, Computer or Software Engineering – we should not deviate from the program’s focus. All reports must be submitted in the electronic form to the instructor through HSE Learning Management System (LMS) for consideration before the date day_x, which is set (last decade of March 2020 as a rough estimate) and announced in the beginning of Module 3. All reports are checked and graded by the instructor on ten-point scale by the end of the 4th Module as the latest, and gives the assessment for the 4th Module of the course. Important NOTE: Please, be informed in advance that failure to comply with specified deadline day_x for submission of the report leads automatically to the reduction of by 0.3 points for each delayed day. The conditions for all students should be the same, regardless of the subsequent date of HW presentation. Finally, the overall course grade on ten-point scale is obtained as (usual rounding takes place after calculations are done, no blocking), where is a grade for a text (written presentation) of the HW report (paper) as such subject to reduction, if any – see Important NOTE above, and are grades for quizzes #2 and #3, correspondingly, whereas is a grade obtained for the presentation (of the HW) done – questions related to topics covered by the course and submitted HW report can be asked to students. The resultant grade (after rounding) means successful completion of the course (grade "Pass"), while grade of 3 or lower means unsuccessful result (grade "Fail"). Student has a chance to obtain “automatic” grade (final course grade that can be only at the “excellent” level, i.e. 8, 9 or 10) without passing through FE (presentation) provided that following is satisfied, i.e. (1) all written quizzes (WQ1, WQ2 and WQ3) are graded as “very good”, “almost excellent” or above (7 or above on ten-point scale), (2) the result of O( ) is 8 or above and O( ) is 8 or above (under option 1 – see page 6), or the result of O( ) is 8 or above (under option 2 – see page 6), and (3) homework assignment (HW report / ) is graded at 8 or above (on ten-point scale). Even in these circumstances, it is strongly recommended to all students, without exceptions, to make presentations of their works (HW).

#### Bibliography

#### Recommended Core Bibliography

- Gorod, A., Gandhi, S. J., Sauser, B., White, B. E., & Ireland, V. (2014). Case Studies in System of Systems, Enterprise Systems, and Complex Systems Engineering. Boca Raton: CRC Press. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsebk&AN=802172
- Jaap Schaveling, & Bill Bryan. (2018). Making Better Decisions Using Systems Thinking. Springer. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsrep&AN=edsrep.b.spr.sprbok.978.3.319.63880.5
- Системный анализ, оптимизация и принятие решений : учеб. пособие для вузов, Козлов, В. Н., 2010
- Теория и методы принятия решений, а также Хроника событий в Волшебных Странах : учебник для вузов, Ларичев, О. И., 2002
- Теория систем и системный анализ : учебник для вузов, Волкова, В. Н., Денисов, А. А., 2010

#### Recommended Additional Bibliography

- Системный анализ : учебник для вузов, Антонов, А. В., 2006