История и теория культуры
Статус: Курс обязательный (Медиакоммуникации)
Направление: 42.03.05. Медиакоммуникации
Кто читает: Школа культурологии
Где читается: Факультет коммуникаций, медиа и дизайна
Когда читается: 2-й курс, 1 модуль
Формат изучения: Full time
As follows from the title of the course, its aim is twofold: first, it seeks to provide a historical survey of the most important developments in Western culture from ancient Greece to the 21st century, which have shaped Western civilization. It addresses various modes of social organization and behaviour, ways of thinking and art expression within their historical contexts. Second, it reveal the certain theoretical approaches to cultural phenomena and provides understanding the ways and functioning of the past in the present. It introduces into the history of research in the field of culture(s) (primarily through the example of anthropology, sociology, and literary studies) as well as into the contemporary areas of research (cultural studies). The overall aim of the course is to foster the development of a reflexive, analytical and critical understanding of culture and its various phenomena.
- Relate cultural phenomena to their historical periods and analyze them within their historical contexts
- Understand various theoretical approaches to the phenomenon of culture
- Apply a new vocabulary and use the interdisciplinary critical perspectives to examine the meanings of cultural objects and processes
- Students are able to relate cultural phenomena to their historical periods and analyze them within their historical contexts.
- Students are able to understand various theoretical approaches to the phenomenon of culture
- Students are able to apply a new vocabulary and use the interdisciplinary critical perspectives to examine themeanings of cultural objects and processes
- Early humanities and social sciences: basic approaches to culture as a research field. Terms and notionsSome approaches to the definition of culture in the 19th and the 20th centuries:Approach 1. Culture as a complex of achievements (early anthropology and early sociology).Approach 2. Culture as a text (symbolic and interpretive anthropology, linguistics, literary studies and semiotics).Approach 3. Culture as a system of norms (social/cultural anthropology and French school of sociology).
- History of culture: ancient Greece and RomeAegean Civilization: Minoan Crete, Mycenaean Greece. The culture of Archaic Greece, 800 –500 BC. Greek colonial expansion and its impact on the Greek identity. The rise of the polis.Main developments in Greek art: from conceptual to optical representation. Classical period (c.480 – 323 BC): Periclean Athens as the centre of Greek civilization. Athenian literature anddrama. Schools of philosophy. The Olympic games and the cult of the body. Greek sculpture:developments in the treatment of the human figure. The Parthenon and its relationship tocontemporary history and politics. Phidias. Debates on the Parthenon marbles and the problemsof cultural property. Hellenistic period (323 – 31 BC): the conquests of Alexander the Great andtheir aftermath. The fall of the polis. Hellenistic kingdoms. The scientific revolution of antiquity:medicine, physics, geography, astronomy. Cosmopolitanism of Hellenistic culture. Hellenisticart: the developments in sculpture. The ancestors’ cult and its place in shaping Roman identity.Roman religious life. Roman architectural revolution: materials, construction methods, newarchitectural forms. Roman portraiture: verism. Equestrian monuments. The ambiguous status ofRoman culture in the ancient Greco-Roman civilization. Greek influences in Roman culture:philosophy, religion, art and literature. Rome’s own unique achievements: law, administration,engineering and military organization. The culture of entertainment in ancient Rome. Shiftingcentres: the founding of Constantinople. The rise of the Christian Church. The impact of the 5th– century migrations. The shaping of a new worldview.
- History of culture: the Middle Ages“Middle Ages”: the question of chronology and localization. Approaches to the study ofmedieval culture. Antique legacy and its transformations in the culture of the Middle Ages. Theconversion of North-Western Europe. The role of monasteries as intellectual and spiritualcentres. Changing concepts of time and space. Early medieval art. The Carolingian Renaissance.European culture between the 11th and 13th centuries. “Feudalism”: a contested term. Crusadesand the influence of Islamic science on European culture. The intellectual revolution: theemergence of the university. Women and education. Phenomenon of the medieval town. “AEurope of town-dwellers” (J. Le Goff). Commercial revival. Pilgrimages. Romanesque art (c.1050 – 1200). The Gothic style in architecture. “Collective privacy” and the rise of personalautonomy. Court culture: chivalry, the evolution of sensibilities and courtly love. Late medievalculture. Black Death and its impact on the medieval societies. The persecution of witches. The shattering of the unity of the Church. The invention of printing press.The growth of national monarchies.
- History of culture: The Modern TimeRenaissance as the transitional period: the problematic uses of the term. The rediscovery of theclassical past: Italian Renaissance. Humanism as the new intellectual and political agenda.Renaissance art: new architectural forms and painting techniques. The Renaissance north of theAlps. Reformation and the spread of Protestantism. The Age of Discovery (1492 – 1600s). Newtechnologies of conquest: early colonial expansion of the Europeans and its impact on Westernculture. Europe and the Atlantic world. “The Columbian Exchange” (Alfred Crosby). The influxof the New World’s silver and the growth of capitalism in Europe. The intellectual origins of thescientific revolution of the 17th century. The new scientific method: Bacon and Descartes. Theworkings of the universe: Newton and his laws. Science and cultural change. The rise ofabsolutism in Europe. Court society as a public institution. “The Civilising Process” (NorbertElias): the transformation of behaviour and emotional sphere. The main features of Baroquestyle. The developments in sculpture: Bernini. The variations of Baroque style in Europeanarchitecture. The foundations of the Enlightenment. The cult of reason and the development ofscience. Carl Linneus, Alexander von Humboldt. Diderot’s “Encyclopaedia”. Human progress and education. The main themes of the Enlightenment thought. Government: theories of socialcontract and natural rights. Adam Smith and free-trade economy. Law and punishment:Beccaria’s humanitarianism. The rise of the middle-class reading public. “Public sphere”. Urbanand rural popular culture. The Enlightenment thinking and the French Revolution.
- History of culture: the Age of Enlightenment. The “long 19th century”Wars and revolutions in Europe. The aesthetic of Romanticism and its historical context. Theidea of national identity. The Industrial revolution. The coming of railways and the change of spatial and temporal vision. The rise of the middle classes. The 19th-century city: observer andthe crowd. New forms of public transport and their influence on city culture. Gender and the cultof domesticity. “Angel in the House” (Patmore). Colonialism and imperialism. Orientalism as aspecific cultural projection of the West. The concept of “civilizing mission”. Imperial culture andracial thought. The cult of science in the 19th century. Positivism. Darwin’s evolutionary theory.Challenges to rationality: Pavlov and Freud. Mass industry and consumer culture. Socialmovements. Suffrage and the redefinition of womanhood. Realism in art. The development ofphotography and its influence on visual arts. The Impressionist movement. Post-Impressionism.Symbolism in art. Art Nouveau: the search for new aesthetic forms. Modernism in literature,music, theatre, architecture. Non-classical formations in the culture of the early 20th century:destruction of traditional forms in arts, literature and science. The impact of the WWI: “the LostGeneration”
- Theory of Culture: new theories and approachesCulture as a site of ideological struggle. Birmingham school of Cultural studies: EdwardThompson, Raymond Williams, Tony Bennett, Stuart Hall. Concepts of power, agency,subjectivity, identity. Poststructuralism: the main concepts. Intertextuality. Representation.Deconstruction. Michel Foucault: the notion of discourse. Discursive formation. Epistemes.‘Regimes of truth’. Power/knowledge. Medicalization. Postmodernism: the end of grandnarratives (Jean-Francois Lyotard). “Culture is Ordinary” (1958) by Raymond Williams. CliffordGeertz: semiotic concept of culture. The Birmingham school of Cultural studies (R. Williams, E.Thompson, S. Hall). Signifying practices and representation. Language as a representationalsystem. The concept of power in Cultural studies. The normativity of culture. Ideology andhegemony. Methods of cultural studies. Feminist and post-feminist critiques of culture. Genderstudies. Post-colonial studies
- Exam (неблокирующий)
- Discussion (неблокирующий)
- Written work (неблокирующий)
- Presentations (неблокирующий)
- Промежуточная аттестация (1 модуль)0.25 * Discussion + 0.25 * Exam + 0.25 * Presentations + 0.25 * Written work
- Burke, P. (2016). Popular Culture in Early Modern Europe (Vol. Third edition). London: Routledge. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsebk&AN=841704
- Smith, A. D. . (DE-588)124833543, (DE-576)178384135. (1999). Myths and memories of the nation / Anthony D. Smith. Oxford [u.a.]: Oxford Univ. Press. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edswao&AN=edswao.078094003