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Бакалавриат 2020/2021

Сравнительные региональные исследования

Лучший по критерию «Полезность курса для расширения кругозора и разностороннего развития»
Лучший по критерию «Новизна полученных знаний»
Направление: 41.03.01. Зарубежное регионоведение
Когда читается: 1-й курс, 3, 4 модуль
Формат изучения: без онлайн-курса
Язык: английский
Кредиты: 4

Course Syllabus


This is the two-term course Comparative Area Studies, a required course for the Politics and Economics of Asia, the HSE-KIC dual degree program students. This course aims to provide students with basic knowledge and analytical tools for a more concrete understanding of countries and regions in the world by introducing two major disciplines in the social sciences, i.e., comparative politics and area studies. Beginning with reviewing key analytical concepts such as institution and culture, students will explore a range of comparative cases in an attempt to explain various key political, economic and social outcomes in our time including state failure, ethnic conflict, economic development, and democratization.
Learning Objectives

Learning Objectives

  • Through the course, students are expected to acknowledge the benefit of the comparative perspective in approaching issues in specific areas of interest, as well as the risk of superficial and non-contextual comparative approaches. In the first term (Module 3), the foundation of a modern nation-state will be thoroughly reviewed with a particular focus on state-building, national integration, political economic system, and democracy. In the second term (Module 4), more concrete cases of democratization, dictatorship, economic development, welfare states, globalization, and so forth, will be discussed from comparative perspectives. Students will be able to exercise the comparative area studies approach by doing a team research project.
  • This offering will also contribute to bolstering the academic vigor of those students who are interested in political science or area studies in general, or who aspire to pursue it as their college major.
Expected Learning Outcomes

Expected Learning Outcomes

  • Students should be able to define: 1. The goal of the course. a. What comparative area studies is b. What is the benefit of comparative area studies
  • Students will be able to define what comparison is and why it is used in explaining political and social phenomena, how comparison is actually used in comparative analysis
  • Students will be able to apply comparative approaches and methods to provided cases. The use of concept and conceptualization should be understood properly as the basis of comparative study.
  • Students will be able to define the concept of the state as a central institution in comparative studies. Students can also analyze how states can vary in autonomy and capacity, and how this can shape their power.
  • Students will be able to analyze the nation-building process and the ways in which national identity is formed and binds people together. Students also need to understand the cause of ethnic and national conflict.
  • Students will be able to define how states are involved in the management of markets and property. Students are also required to analyze different political-economic systems and to compare them in terms of how each of them provides public goods and collective benefits.
  • Students will be able to define democracy and explain its components while explaining why democracy has emerged in some cases and not in others. Students also are required to distinguish different democratic systems as well as to evaluate them comparatively.
  • Students will be able to explain the ways in which non-democratic regimes maintain their power.
  • Students will be able to distinguish the various aspects of political violence outside the control of the states.
  • Students will be able to describe the major characteristics of developed democracies and to analyze how political, economic, and social institutions differ among them.
  • Students will be able to explain the foundations of communist ideology and to describe how communist systems worked.
  • Students will be able to analyze the characteristics of underdeveloped countries and how imperialism and colonialism have affected their state, societal, and economic institutions.
  • Students will be able to explain the institutional foundations and determinants of poverty and wealth, as well as democracy.
  • Students will be able to describe and understand how political globalization challenges sovereignty; how economic globalization transforms markets and property within and between countries; and how societal globalization undermines old identities and creates new ones. Students are also expected to evaluate and critique globalization and its aftermath.
  • Students will be able to distinguish different type of non-democratic rules and evaluate them comparatively.
  • Students will be able to analyze nonstate actors violence that can take several forms; and that it can be explained by referring to institutions, ideology, and individual personalities; and that responding to violence presents a dilemma for modern states.
  • Students also will be able to analyze the challenges the advanced democracies have been facing and what solutions are available with them.
  • Students will be able to discuss the effects of state control over markets and property and how post-communist states have transformed their economic and political institutions.
  • Students will be able to explain how post-colonial countries have suffered from ethnic and national division, limited economic growth, and weak states.
Course Contents

Course Contents

  • Course Overview
    1. The comparative politics • Discipline of political science • Major thinkers of comparative politics i. Aristotle, Machiavelli, Hobbes, Locke, Montesquieu, Rousseau, Marx, Weber • Trends in comparative politics i. Traditional approach ii. Behavioral approach 2. The area studies • Disciplines in area studies • Development of area studies • Recent trend i. After the Cold War ii. The Big Debate in the 1990s 3. Comparative Area Studies • Synthesizing the comparative politics and the area studies • Benefit of comparative area studies approach in understanding East Asian countries
  • What is Comparison?
    1. Why compare? a. To explain, understand, and interpret b. Single case study i.Offers rich understanding and information ii.Good for generating hypothesis c. Hypothesis testing i.Comparative method is one of the efficient ways to test a hypothetical claim 2. “Comparing is controlling” a. Comparing is one of the ways to control contextual variables, or exogenous variables, in explaining a causal relations b. What is comparable? i.Comparing is controlling ii.Anything can be compared as long as variables can be controlled and measurably operationalized c.No one can control all variables i.“Comparable with respect to which properties or characteristics” d. Comparing is very purposeful i.Comparable things vary according to the purpose of comparison 3. Comparability a. All variables sometimes matter or do not matter depending on the puzzle you want to solve b. Specific puzzle often leads researchers to “miscomparing” 4. Sources of “miscomparing” (Sartori 1991) a. Parochialism b. Misclassification c. Degreeism d. Conceptual over-stretching 5. Cases of comparative approaches a. Comparative politics b. Area studies c. East Asian studies
  • How to compare?
    1. Concepts a. Containers of meaning i.Terms of concepts ii.Referents of concepts b. Common points of reference for grouping phenomena i.Vehicle to travel across contextual (or geographic) boundaries 2. Conceptualization a. How to make a concept? i.Collect a representative set of definitions ii.Extract their characteristics iii.Construct matrixes that organize such characteristics meaningfully 3. Conceptual application a. Conceptual traveling i.Application of concepts to new cases b. Conceptual stretching i.Distortion occurring when a concept does not fit the new cases c. How to avoid conceptual stretching while traveling? i.Appropriate level of abstraction 4. Ladder of abstraction a. Key to conceptualization: Abstraction b. Applicability and differentiation i.Climbing the ladder: More applicability ii.Descending the ladder: More differentiation 5. Two comparative methods to solve a puzzle a. Starting from in-depth case studies to formulate a hypothesis and develop it into a comparative puzzle i.Bottom-up, inductive reasoning ii.Common method in sciences iii.Scientific inferences and empirical falsification b. Starting from a hypothesis, or a set of hypotheses, and then collect comparative data to prove it i.Top-down, deductive reasoning ii.Common method in logical reasoning 6. Obstacles to comparative study a. Matter of variables i.Unlike natural sciences, real world variables are impossible to control ii.Difficult to single out independent variable(s) as too many variables influence a political outcome: multi-causality b. Hard to distinguish cause and effect c. Independent variables and dependent variables are not separated: endogeneity problem 7. Mill’s methods of causal reasoning a. Methods for selecting actual causes among possible causes i.Start with variables assumed to include the possible causes ii.Use correlation to separate actual causes from possible causes b. Four methods of comparative causal reasoning i.Method of Agreement ii.Method of Difference iii.Method of Concomitant Variation iv.Method of Residues 8. How to control variables in comparative studies? a.Most similar systems design (MSSD) i.Method for dealing with differences in similar cases ii.Method of difference iii.Building on experimental research design iv.Control concomitant variables among selected cases v.Ignoring extraneous variables b. Most different systems design (MDSD ) 9. Selection bias a. A statistical bias occurring when sampling is not sufficiently random b. Resulting in flawed interpretation c. One of the major limitations of comparative area studies 10. How to minimize selection bias? a. Tailored research design for comparative cases b. Increase the number of cases c. Introducing advanced mathematical procedures 11. Large-N vs. small-N a. In general, inductive reasoning is suitable for comparing small or limited number of cases, while deductive inference favors large-N comparative studies 12. Quantitative vs. qualitative research tradition a. Qualitative method i.Mastery of a few cases through the detailed study of their history, language, and culture ii.Emphasis on depth over breadth b. Quantitative method 13. Correlation vs. causality a. Correlation: relations among multiple variables b. Causation: relations between independent and dependent variables
  • The State
    1. Origins of the modern state a. Feudal system b. Continuing (physical) competition c. Growth of commerce and cities (towns) d. Technological development e. Gradual decline of the feudal system f. Growing power of large estates 2. Emergence of the polity of the estates (Ständestaat, 12-14C) a. “Power dualism” between the territorial ruler and the estates b. Shifting balance of power c. Capitalism d. Rise of cities e. Declining power of feudal lords 3. Centralization of political power a. Institutionalization of rule b. Key aspects of institutionalization c. Political basis of the absolutist system of rule d. The burgeoning idea of “legitimacy” 4. Monopoly: Formation of the modern state a. Monopolization of physical forces b. Advance of institutionalization of rule 5. The absolutist monarchies a. Proto-type of modern state b. Territorial expansion and defense c. Mercantilism d. Concentration of power and institutionalization e. Sovereignty f. Formation of the idea of “territoriality” 6. Peace of Westphalia (1648) a. Recognition of the state’s sovereign right over its territory b. Equality of legal status among sovereign powers 7. Territorial state a. The notion of “state sovereignty” means “territorial state” b. Modern states in Europe have optimized their territorial size and bureaucratic apparatuses 8. State-building as a universal imperative a. Westphalia system of states b. Problem of failed states 9. The modern state a. “Monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force within a given territory” b. A state fails if it loses any of the essential elements in the definition of the state 10. Legitimacy a. Types of social power 11. Obstacles to state-building a. State-building without competition comprehensively b. Underdeveloped state apparatus c. Economic difficulties after independence d. Ethnic diversity and local strongmen e. Difficult to extend the central state’s authority f. Origins of the tragic history of non-Western, post-colonial countries 12. Failed states a. A state that does not correspond to its definition b. A state that is not sufficiently strong (or capable) to effectively rule a given territory c. Precursor of state collapse 13. State power a. A strong and capable state b. How to measure state power? c. State power vis-à-vis the society 14. Autonomy vs. isolation a. Autonomous (vis-à-vis society) state does not necessarily mean strong state b. States can be physically strong but isolated from society at the same time c. A strong and capable state should be autonomous from but, simultaneously, penetrate into society d. “Embedded autonomy
  • Nations and Society
    1. Nation‐building a. Once you take over a state, you need to make people within its territory have same identity as members of a same political community, i.e., the state b. Mutual recognition of domestic sovereignty of the state and bourgeois citizenship c. The state became portrayed as a legitimate institution that embodies the collective identity of the public d. Nation-state as the model of nation-state building 2. National identity a. A sense of belonging to a nation and a belief in its political aspirations b. Nation: A group that desires self‐government through an independent state c. Often (but not always) derived from ethnic identity d. Inherently political e. Basis for nationalism 3. Nationalism a. “A pride in one’s people and the belief that they have their own sovereign political destiny that is separated from those of others” b. A political aspiration to build a sovereign nation‐state c. Thrust for national development d. Ambition for unification or independence 4. Nationalism and ethnic conflict a. Ethnic groups (ethnos) without nation-states b. Nationalism for independent state‐building c. Separatist insurgency d. Counter‐insurgency warfare 5. Multi-ethnicity and ethnic conflicts a. Insurgency theory 6. Weak state power and ethnic conflict a. Either by incomplete state‐building or state failure b. Vicious circles of failing states and nations 7. Citizenship: How to integrate people? a. Transformation of the relations between the state and the people through the nation‐state building process b. People’s growing demand for protecting their own rights 8. Evolution of citizenship and the contemporary idea of citizenship a. An individual’s relation to the state b. The individual swears allegiance to the state, and the state in turn provides certain benefits or rights c. Purely political and thus more easily changed than ethnic identity or national identity d. The basis for patriotism 9. Identity matters in integration a. Types of political identity besides nationality and citizenship b. Religion c. Ideology d. Political attitude e. Culture and civilization 10. Secularization and disenchantment a. Transition from ascriptive to acquired identity b. Resilience of traditional identity c. Sources of social cleavages 11. Identity and democracy a. Political identities make political interests b. Issue of “interest aggregation” c. Social cleavages mobilized for (and by) political parties d. Social cleavages externally mobilized by political parties are a good soil for patronage (clientelistic) politics 12. Multi-identity politics a. There is no inherently undemocratic political identities b. Developing appropriate institutional schemes and political systems matters 13. Making democracy work in divided (multi-ethnic or multi-cultural) society a. Creating centripetal (moderating) incentives among political forces b. Cross-cutting cleavages c. Proper electoral system d. Various solutions to manage multi‐identity issues including the federalist solution 14. Federalism a. Federalism as a political device to manage social divisions b. Federalism can accommodate ethnic diversities
  • Political Economy
    1. What is political economy? a. Idea of national economy: political economy 2. Historical development of the idea of political economy a. Classical economists i.Separation of politics and economy ii.Idea of self-regulating free market iii.Productivity creates wealth: division of labor and competitive advantage iv.Market attains natural equilibrium v.Laissez-faire state b. Neoclassical economics i.Departure from political economy to “pure” economics ii.Sophisticated mechanism of explaining equilibrium iii.Maximization of utility iv.“Marginal revolution” v.Objectifying and universalizing economic theory c. Marxism i.Capitalism’s inherent propensity to crisis ii.Politics as a means to suppress the contradiction of capitalism d. Taking politics out of economy i.(Neo-liberal) economics ii.Marxian economics f. Keynesian revolution i.Private sector efficiency can generate macroeconomic inefficiency ii.Advocates government intervention g. Emergence of alternative political economic systems i.Socialist revolutions ii.Mixed economies: social democratic regimes, welfare states, etc. h. Growing cases of economic changes by state intervention i.New Deal policy (Keynesianism) ii.Ordoliberalismus iii.Dirigisme iv.State socialism v.NICs and the state-led economic development 3. “Varieties of capitalism” a. Each capitalist economy has developed unique “institutional arrangement” to maximize utilities per its comparative advantages i. Transaction cost (New Institutional Economics) ii. Path-dependence iii. Institutional complementarity b. Institutions in a political economic system have mutually complementary relations i. Each institution has its “fit” c. Capitalist economies can be roughly grouped into two types of political economic system i. Liberal market economies (LMEs) ii. Coordinated market economies (CMEs) 4. Studying political economy a. Formation of national political economic systems i. State wants to intervene in economy for political purposes ii. Market actors want freedom from the state for economic purposes b. Market-conforming intervention c. Unique transformation of the relationship between political and economic institutions in a country 5. Regulation or deregulation a. The state regulates and deregulates the market b. The degrees of market regulations are largely determined by politics c. Domestic political interest i. Interest group pressures and class relations ii. Regime legitimization iii. International pressure iv. Global standard v. Economic crisis vi. Ideological imperative d. Primary goal of the state (de-)regulation: Economic performance 6. Theories of economic growth a. All states want to economically thrive b. How to achieve economic growth? 7. Mercantilism a. Classical economists b. Neo-classical economists c. Marxist interpretation d. Statist i. “The Developmental State” 8. Political outcomes a. Different theories on economic development generate different political economic systems i. Liberal economies based on (neo-)classical theories ii. Socialist economies based on Marxian theories iii. State-developmental (mercantilist) economies in the late-developing countries iv. Social democratic economies with modified capitalism 9. Economic changes a. Different political economic systems require different institutional arrangements for economic changes b. Difficulties of economic reform c. Unintended consequences of economic reform
  • Democratic Regimes
    1. What is democracy? a. “Political power exercised either directly or indirectly through participation, competition, and liberty” b. It’s all about power in a political community, or a nation-state 2. Representative democracy a. Indirect democracy through representation b. People themselves do not govern but leave governance to the agents they elect 3. Liberal democracy a. “Political system that promotes participation, competition, and liberty” b. Election, political party, accountability 4. Institutional elements of democracy a. Elections and electoral procedures b. Political parties c. Judicial system d. Civil society e. Free media 5. Questions on democracy a. Who has the political power? b. How political power is instituted? c. How much power should be bestowed? d. How well power is represented? 6. Who governs? a. A state is governed by the executive (cabinet) b. Voters in a democratic country generally do not vote directly for cabinet members c. To whom the cabinet is accountable defines the types of the democratic government 7. Presidential system a. Directly elected president holds majority of executive power as head of state and government b. Serves for a fixed term and cannot be easily removed from office 8. Parliamentary system a. Indirectly elected prime minister holds executive power as head of government b. Parliament (congress, assembly, diet, etc.) can be dissolved before completion of full term 9. Some hybrid systems a. Semi-presidential system b. Parliamentary republic 10. How political power is formed? a. How to realize “representativeness” through democratic election? b. A variety of ways to convert votes into seats c. Plurality-Majority (SMD in Textbook) d. Proportional Representation (PR) e. Mixed: Parallel (Mixed-Member) i. Single-non-transferable-vote (SNTV): basically plurality but semiproportional result 11. Electoral systems and party politics a. Two-party competition more likely in SMDP or FPTP electoral systems i.Disproportionality in the seat to vote ratios b. PR leads to multi-party competition i.In PR systems more parties get votes ynless the threshold is exceptionally high c. Electoral system as a game changer 12. How much power should be bestowed? a. A modern popular democracy is an indirect democracy, which is a representative democracy b. Then, the elected office holders are authorized to do whatever they want to do? c. Problem of “delegation” 13. Making system more representative: The quality of democracy a. Elite delegation vs. mass democracy b. Representative democracy in limbo 14. How much participation is desirable? a. Is mass participation, as in the case of plebiscitarian democracy, always good? b. At the same time, how can we ensure the responsiveness of elected office holders, without impairing the efficiency of representative democracy? 15. Stability, efficiency, accountability a. Democracy as a historical consequence of nation-state building b. Implementing institutions for representative democracy c. Designing a (democratically) more accountable institution in given conditions
  • Non-Democratic Regimes
    1. What is non-democratic regime? a. Non-democratic rule b. Key characteristics c. Non-democratic regimes however may be institutionalized and legitimate 2. Forms of non-democratic rule a. Variety of non-democratic regimes 3. Totalitarianism a. Defined not by the system of government but by the principle of action b. Lawful and constitutional system of government c. No more space for individually motivated action such as freedom and liberty d. All, including the leader, are the functionaries of a totalist society to carry out a prophetic goal defined by its ideology e. Fundamental transformation of most domestic institutions and the potential use of violence toward that end f. Totalitarian ideology is: 4. Authoritarianism a. A political system neither democratic nor totalitarian b. Often quite extensive social and economic pluralism c. In which a leader or occasionally a small group exercises power within formally ill-defined but actually quite predictable norms 5. Origins of non-democratic rule a. The Moore thesis b. Post-colonial nation states 6. Sources of non-democratic rule a. Material conditions b. Geographic conditions c. Political elites d. Social conditions e. International environment f. Culture and religion 7. Why no democratization? a. Preconditions of democratization? b. Factor-oriented approaches: Lists of causal forces 8. Institution matters a. Structural-Institutional Approaches 9. Persistence of non-democratic rule a. How non-democratic regimes survive? b. But, how can we explain the “stability” of a non-democratic regime? 10. Managed democracy a. Degrees of legitimacy, corruption, concentration of power, etc., vary across regimes b. cion and surveillance c. Procedural democracy without substantive democracy 11. Contemporary type of non-democratic rules a. Personal and monarchical rule b. Military rule c. Bureaucratic authoritarianism d. Theocracy e. Illiberal and hybrid regimes 12. Interrupted democratic consolidation a. Growing number of institutionalized and stable non-democratic regimes b. Dual-faceted nature of institution c. Democratic institutions to legitimize non-democratic rule d. Growing number of constitutional, legitimized, and institutionalized non-democratic rules
  • Political Violence
    1. What is political violence? a. Politically motivated violence outside of state control i.Actions carried out by nonstate actors ii.Part of broader category of “contentious politics” b. Revolutions c. Civil war d. Riots e. Strikes 2. Why Political Violence? a. Institutional Explanations i.Some institutions create violence by excluding, marginalizing, and polarizing populations. ii.Some institutions reduce violence by promoting inclusion. b. Ideational Explanations i.Ideas set out a worldview, diagnose problems, provide resolutions, and describe the means for achieving goals. ii.Any of these things can inspire people to violence. c. Individual Explanations 3. Comparing Explanations of Political Violence a. Free will b. Universalism 4. Forms of Political Violence: Revolution a. Some element of public participation b. Goal is to gain control of the state c. Often, but not always, violent d. Possible Causes of Revolution 5. Forms of Political Violence: Terrorism a. Carried out by nonstate actors b. Targets civilians c. Has a political goal or intent d. Institutional Explanations for Terrorism 6. Terrorism and Revolution: Means and Ends a. The Typical Outcomes of Revolution b. What About Terrorism? 7. Political Violence and Religion a. Factors that Can Transform Religion into Violence 8. Countering Political Violence a. How Best to Combat Revolutionaries and/or Terrorists b. Fundamental dilemma: repression or reform? 9. Counterterrorism in Democracies: The Dilemma of Freedom vs. Security
  • Advanced Democracies
    1. What is civil society? a. Generally refers to the intermediary space between the state and private life b. Civil society organizations 2. Roles of civil society a. Consolidating democratic practices b. Providing services c. Contributing to socioeconomic development 3. Vibrant civil society can… a. Stimulate political participation b. Develop democratic attitudes c. Channel social interests to the state d. Recruit and train political leaders e. Effectively deliver information and services to the public f. Eventually, legitimize and strengthen the state 4. Advanced democracies today a. Dwindling participation b. Mounting dissatisfaction c. Unaccountable and unresponsive politics 5. Non-competitive party politics a. Diminishing competition among major parties b. Non-competitive party politics makes politics less responsive and accountable to people’s voice c. Shrinking political participation of civil society might have contributed to the declining party identification and voter turnout d. How to do that? 6. Problems of advanced democracies a. Dwindling political participation in tandem with declining people’s confidence in democratic institutions, i.e., governments parliaments, and political parties b. Anemic democracy 7. Economic changes in the advanced countries in the 1980s a. Neoliberalism and income polarization b. Dwindling confidence in government 8. Performance of advanced democracies a. In responsive democracies, political forces compete for political power to better serve the people b. Are, then, advanced democracies today serving their people well? c. How can we measure the performance of advanced democracies? 9. Determinants of welfare regimes a. Types of welfare states are largely determined by types of political regimes b. Political power of leftist political parties and trade unions that has determined set of policy preferences c. Changes of policy preferences, overtime, transforms the characteristics of welfare regimes d. Welfare regimes are the products of labor politics and democracy 10. General retrenchment of welfare provisions a. Growing demand b. Declining supply c. Gradual retrenchment of welfare provisions 11. Challenges to welfare states a. Economic challenge b. Social challenge c. Political challenge d. Are they responding well? 12. Achieving national integration a. National integration is the most critical element of modern nation-state b. However, economic and social challenges to welfare state c. Modern welfare states need to maintain a balance between its economic goals (market efficiency) and political goals (national integration)
  • Communism and Post-Communism
    1. Cold War begins a. Truman Doctrine (1947) b. Marshall Plan (1947-51) 2. The Socialist world a. Soviet Union expands its influence over Eastern Europe b. Berlin Blockade (1948-1949) c. Warsaw Pact (1955) d. Invasion of Hungary (1956) 3. Brezhnev Doctrine (1968) a. Justified Soviet’s military interventions in neighboring socialist country 4. Reagan Doctrine (1980) a. Rollback policy against the Communist expansion b. U.S. turned to an explicit support to anti-communist authoritarianism c. Declaring a “crusade” against the Soviet Union 5. From MAD to SDI a. Mutual Assured Destruction b. Strategic Defense Initiative (1983) c. Forced Soviet Union to produce more nuclear stockpiles 6. Gorbachev era a. Initiated massive reform in political and economic system b. Perestroika (restructuring) c. Glasnost (openness) d. Denouncing Brezhnev Doctrine 7. Changes in Eastern Europe a. Waning Soviet’s influence b. Growing popular opposition c. Economic stagnation 8. Fall of the Soviet Union a. Gorbachev’s reforms undermined the CPSU’s control over the Soviet Union b. August coup by the conservatives in the CPSU was suppressed by the people in 1991 c. End of communist rule 9. Democratic transition a. Free elections after the transition b. How was the transition? c. Ethnic conflicts in some countries 10. Diverging outcomes a. All have adopted representative democratic institution including free election, parliament, and independent judiciary b. However some achieved well‐functioning democracy relative to the others 11. Explanations? a. Ethnicity? b. Authoritarian culture? c. Weak civil society? d. Economic reasons? 12. Problem of socialist economy a. “Soft-budget constraint syndrome” b. Shortage economy c. Demands are not met, resources are not fully utilized 13. Privatization a. Privatization was regarded as the only answer to the fundamental problems of socialist economy b. The only concern was the “speed” c. Shock therapy vs. gradualism 14. Advocates of the shock therapy a. Price reforms not enough to improve efficiency of SOEsts b. Privatizing thousands of firms while ensuring equity and political viability is technically impossible c. “Massive privatization” 15. Different outcomes a. “Big Bang” of economic liberalization, privatization and opening to international trade produced b. “A shock without the therapy” c. Resurgence of communists and dictatorial strongmen 16. A gradual alternative a. China’s “growing out of plan” approach b. Unable to compare systematically because only China has adopted gradualist transition strategy
  • Less-developed Countries
    1. Imperialism a. Western countries’ competition over trade and resources b. “A system in which a state extend its power beyond its borders to control other territories and peoples” 2. Colonialism a. Physical occupation of a foreign territory through military force, businesses, or settlers b. Extensive changes during colonial rule c. Colonial societies undergo extensive social changes 3. Intention and modernization a. Colonial exploitation b. Colonial modernization 4. Overdeveloped state a. To achieve the goal of the imperial powers, strong and repressive colonial state apparatus were established b. Development of modern “society” was impeded 5. Social consequences a. Conflict between traditional and modern identities b. Disruptive split of society 6. Post-colonial state a. State-building prior to nation-building b. Difficulty in achieving national integration 7. Political decay a. Explosion of politics b. Post-colonial states tend to rely on despotic power with clientelistic support to control society 8. Colonial legacy and development a. Colonialism triggered modernization b. However, colonial experience makes mostly detrimental impact on postcolonial development c. Repressive state and fragmented society with the remnants of exploitative state‐society relations 9. Colonial modernization? a. Uneven development across the segments of society b. Modernization is a multi-faceted phenomenon 10. Problems of weak state a. Compromised sovereignty b. Conflicts with neighboring states c. International organizations d. Departure of colonial technocrats e. Limited state autonomy f. Clientelism and corruption
  • Newly-developed Countries
    1. Newly industrialized countries a. Four Asian Tigers b. All are post-colonial countries c. Emerging markets 2. Common characteristics a. Commonalities of the newly industrialized countries b. The Asian NICs c. Nationalistic mobilization d. Authoritarian regime 3. Explanations? a. Market? b. State (policies)? c. Society? d. International environment? 4. Differences a. Economic performances b. Political differences 5. Diverging performances a. Laying ground for economic takeoff is one thing, and maintaining growth after the takeoff is another b. The ways in which each economy has achieved takeoff and has maintained growth differ across countries c. Debates on re-regulation 6. Post-colonial Developmental States a. States in many emerging economies have enjoyed capacity and autonomy from society inherited from their colonial experience b. Many Latin American countries have failed to establish strong states due to the persistence of strong landed class linked to external forces, i.e., foreign governments and MNCs c. Many factors including political leadership, nationalism, international environment, etc., have enabled the strong states to work for economic development together with societies 7. Strong state and underdevelopment a. In many underdeveloped postcolonial states, however, political elites appropriated the strong state power for the sake of their own political and economic interests b. The overdeveloped state has failed to build infrastructural power 8. Changing state-society relations a. Economic growth however changes the state-society relationship, which has gradually undermined the autonomy of the state, i.e., one of the fundamental sources of state capacity b. Troubled economies 9. The price of wealth a. The success stories of East Asian NICs and BRICs builds on the exposure to international capitalist market in the postwar era b. The success stories also canvass the strength and capability of the state
  • Globalization and Comparative Area Studies
    1. Globalization a. What is globalization? b. Converging impetus in politics, economy, and society c. Heading to a borderless world? 2. Converging World, Diverging Outcomes a. Economic globalization b. Political globalization 3. Growing gaps a. Global inequalities between individuals is increasing due to differences between countries b. Non-democratic and Partially-democratic Countries Persist 4. Comparative Study in a Globalized World a. The world has become increasingly homogeneous over the past century at global level b. However, national system of politics, economy, and society are still diverse at great degrees 5. Comparative Perspectives can a. Help us understand and sympathize with other communities beyond territorial boundaries b. Ultimately, help us think of better yet feasible solutions to the problems
Assessment Elements

Assessment Elements

  • non-blocking Attendance
  • non-blocking Participation
  • non-blocking Quizzes
    Four quizzes will be administered through the course, each of which accounts for 10 percent of the grade in the first term (Module 3, 20 percent in total) and 5 percent of the second term (Module 4, 10 percent in total);
  • non-blocking Midterm Exam
    The exam is in a writing form. The exam is conducted on the Zoom platform (https://zoom.us/). You must connect to the conference 10 minutes before the start. The student's computer must meet the following requirements: must be equipped with a working camera and microphone. To participate in the exam, the student must: turn on the camera and microphone. During the exam, students are prohibited turning off the camera, moving away from the computer, communicating with other people. A short-term communication disruption during the exam is considered a communication disruption of less than a minute. Long-term communication disruption during the exam is considered a violation of a minute or more. In case of a long-term communication disruption, the student cannot continue to participate in the exam. The retake procedure is similar to the the procedure described above.
  • non-blocking Final Exam
    The exam is in a writing form. The exam is conducted on the Zoom platform (https://zoom.us/). You must connect to the conference 10 minutes before the start. The student's computer must meet the following requirements: must be equipped with a working camera and microphone. To participate in the exam, the student must: turn on the camera and microphone. During the exam, students are prohibited turning off the camera, moving away from the computer, communicating with other people. A short-term communication disruption during the exam is considered a communication disruption of less than a minute. Long-term communication disruption during the exam is considered a violation of a minute or more. In case of a long-term communication disruption, the student cannot continue to participate in the exam. The retake procedure is similar to the the procedure described above.
  • non-blocking Home assignments
Interim Assessment

Interim Assessment

  • Interim assessment (3 module)
    0.1 * Attendance + 0.2 * Final Exam + 0.4 * Midterm Exam + 0.1 * Participation + 0.2 * Quizzes
  • Interim assessment (4 module)
    0.1 * Attendance + 0.2 * Final Exam + 0.4 * Midterm Exam + 0.1 * Participation + 0.2 * Quizzes


Recommended Core Bibliography

  • Ahram, A. I., Köllner, P., & Sil, R. (2018). Comparative Area Studies : Methodological Rationales and Cross-Regional Applications. New York, NY, United States of America: Oxford University Press. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsebk&AN=1666244
  • Bank, A. (DE-576)187604169. (2015). Comparative Area Studies and Middle East Politics after the Arab Uprisings / André Bank. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edswao&AN=edswao.444964142

Recommended Additional Bibliography

  • Gussi, A. (2015). Political uses of memory and the state in post-communism. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsbas&AN=edsbas.8C338563
  • Hudson, C., & Barendregt, B. A. (2018). Globalization and Modernity in Asia : Performative Moments. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsebk&AN=1879462
  • Jaussaud, J., & Rey, S. (2018). FDI to Japan and Trade Flows: A Comparison of BRICs, Asian Tigers and Developed Countries. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsbas&AN=edsbas.17D0B942
  • Karlson, N. (DE-588)1030186464, (DE-627)734900635, (DE-576)170615014. (2018). Statecraft and Liberal Reform in Advanced Democracies by Nils Karlson. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edswao&AN=edswao.494017406
  • Kemnitz, A., & Roessler, M. (2017). Economic development, democratic institutions, and repression in non-democratic regimes: Theory and evidence. CEPIE Working Papers. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsrep&AN=edsrep.p.zbw.tudcep.0417
  • Liu, H. V. (DE-588)1069169951, (DE-627)82146552X, (DE-576)42846615X, aut. (2019). The political economy of a rising China in southeast asia Malaysia’s response to the Belt and Road Initiative Hong Liu, Guanie Lim. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edswao&AN=edswao.1663559279
  • Maggetti, M., & Braun, D. (2015). Comparative Politics : Theoretical and Methodological Challenges. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsebk&AN=1105387
  • Masoud Motllebi, & Jamal Khan Mohammadi. (2017). The Congruence of State and Nation and its Effects on Economic Development of Societies: The Comparative – longitudinal Study during the Years between 1990 and 2004. Dulat/Pizhūhī, (9), 195. https://doi.org/10.22054/TSSQ.2017.13452.121
  • MISHRA, S. K. (2018). Are democratic regimes antithetical to globalization? Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsbas&AN=edsbas.372F5314
  • Patrick Ziltener, Daniel Künzler, & André Walter. (2017). Research Note: Measuring the Impacts of Colonialism: A New Data Set for the Countries of Africa and Asia. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsbas&AN=edsbas.D647CD61
  • Political violence in South Asia edited by Ali Riaz, Zobaida Nasreen and Fahmida Zaman. (2019). Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edswao&AN=edswao.513664688
  • Rethinking Transnationalism in the Global World: Contested State, Society, Border, and the People in between. (2019). https://doi.org/10.1111/imig.12594
  • Sparks, C. (2018). Post-Communism, Democratisation and the Media: (Nearly) Thirty Years On. Javnost-The Public, 25(1/2), 144–151. https://doi.org/10.1080/13183222.2018.1423979
  • Weber, H. V. (DE-588)1079389768, (DE-576)452434815, aut. (2019). Age structure and political violence : a re-assessment of the “youth bulge” hypothesis / Hannes Weber, University of Mannheim. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edswao&AN=edswao.517806029