This paper explores age-specific migration flows between regions of Russia. Using age-disaggregated data of the Russian Census 2010, we cluster interregional migration flows based on prevailing age-groups of migrants, analyse diversity and similarity in the choice of age-specific migration destinations and describe general socio-economic characteristics of these flows. It is for the first time that the relationship between migration and migrants’ age and life-cycle events is analysed in the Russian context. Similar to migrants in other countries, migrants in Russia choose the place of residence depending on their age. Migration flows which differ by dominating age group of migrants quite often have opposite destinations, because motivations of migration also differ. Migration follows various stages of the life-cycle: people are born in one region, study in another region, go to work in a different region, and resettle to another place after retirement. Migration modeling turns to be complicated if the impact of age factor is ignored. Therefore, the age of migrants should be considered when analyzing, modeling and interpreting interregional migration in Russia.
The mortality rates from homicides and suicides, which serve as an indicator of the psychological well-being and the value of life in society, show a steady decline after the 2000s in Russia. However, another block of causes of death, event of undetermined intent shows the same rapid growth and since 2014 already exceeds the cumulative death rate from homicides and suicides. Researchers believe this block of causes is a reservoir of latent homicides and suicides. As a result, actual data on homicides and suicides are underestimated. The situation is exacerbated by the fact that regional practices of coding the causes of death can largely deform the structure of mortality, which is why the ordinary proportional redistribution of event of undetermined intent within the class “External causes of morbidity and mortality” ICD-10 is not enough. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the actual death rates from homicides and suicides using a model region in which the proportion of event of undetermined intent is minimal. Three options for solving this problem are proposed. The suicide rate increased by 30% regardless of the hypothesis. At the same time, the level of homicides and accidents increased most significantly under the third hypothesis, when all cases of events of undetermined intent were redistributed – there was an increase of 30% compared to 15–20% for the first hypothesis. Assessment for regions, depending on the accepted hypothesis of redistribution of events of undetermined intent, showed differences, demonstrating an underestimation of specific causes of death. In some regions, ill-defined causes are used mainly to hide deaths from suicide (for example, Astrakhan, Samara, Sakhalin and Samara regions, as well as Tuva), and in other regions to conceal homicides (Orel and Vologda regions, Bashkortostan).
This paper analyses the spatial patterns of internal migration in Russia using data on net migration gain/loss in 2200 municipal formations (MFs) in Russia for the 2012–2013 period. These MFs are grouped into age categories that correspond with different life-course stages. We define 16 classes of MFs with similar migration balance patterns for multiple age groups and characterize the most typical classes. The results of our analysis show that age-specific migration patterns are determined by the spatial characteristics of MFs—in particular, a municipality’s localization in the centreperiphery system and the advantages of the geographic location (e.g., resort area, natural resources). We find that a city’s population size and administrative status are also important migration factors. In addition, we reveal differences in inter-regional and intra-regional migration and define their structural characteristics. An analysis of age-specific net migration contributes to our understanding of internal migration factors and allows us to assess the impact of migration on a municipality’s age structure. In large cities and regional centres, migration results in younger populations, while in peripheral areas, it speeds up population ageing. In most of the MFs that we analysed, the migration of youth and adults ‘moves’ in opposite directions. This factor accelerates the impact of migration on the population age structure in areas of destination and origin and significantly influences a municipality’s current and prospective demographic parameters as well as the population’s patterns of settlement and spatial concentration or de-concentration both nationally and regionally.
Russia’s gender revolution notoriously produced women’s economic empowerment without domestic equality. Although the Soviet state vastly expanded women’s employment, this had little impact on a starkly unequal gender division of domestic labor. Such “stalling” is common, but in Russia its extent and persistence presents a puzzle, requiring us to investigate linkages between macro-level factors and micro-level interactions regarding the gender division of domestic labor. We do this by focusing on gender ideology, an important variable explaining the gender division of domestic labor that bridges the macro level of the gender order and the micro-interactional level. We use longitudinal qualitative data to examine continuity and change in young Russian women’s gender ide- ologies between 1999 and 2010. Based on an analysis of 115 in-depth interviews from 23 respondents, we identify traditional and egalitarian trajectories and the processes under- lying them, showing how the male breadwinner schema and an ideology of women’s inde- pendence support traditionalism, while non-traditional breadwinning and interactional support from men facilitate egalitarianism. Our analysis enables us to explain the Soviet gender paradox and distinguish sources of change in the post-Soviet era.
The current stage of demographic changes in all countries that have experienced a demographic transition is characterized by two main features: (1) cessation of population growth; (2) a progressive increase in the total dependency ratio, which until recently, despite the long-run population ageing, was declining. Both of these features are unfavorable from the economic point of view. In Russia, the situation is aggravated by the peculiarities of the population pyramid, heavily deformed by the social and military upheavals of the 20th century. The article shows that, for a long time, the demographic trends in Russia favored its economic development, but now the country is entering a long period of unfavorable demographic changes. The cessation of growth of the Russian population, the reduction in the working-age population and its ageing and the increase in the dependency ratio will have a deterrent effect on economic development and, at the same time, make it more difficult to solve social problems. In particular, these factors will create greater problems for the pension system for people older than working age. The issue of using the migration resource to mitigate the negative consequences of demographic changes is discussed.
This chapter will explore a number of issues in relation to motherhood and the family in post-Soviet Russia. These include the decline in the birth rate, changes in women’s attitudes towards having children, the emergence of the Childfree movement, and, conversely, the emphasis on ‘intensive mothering’ which has emerged in recent years. Since children have traditionally been considered an essential feature of the family, we will also consider whether people’s understanding of the family is undergoing change as more people remain childless. We will argue that although it is easier for women to make choices about having children than it was in the more prescriptive Soviet era, there are still social pressures, old and new, which influence these choices. Our research method is an analysis of discussions between Russian women on the issues outlined above which have taken place on various Russian Internet sites.
The life course is becoming more flexible and more amenable to personal adjustment for contemporary youth. The process and timing of entering adulthood is expanding due to longer education and the search for oneself. Young people in contemporary Russia do not rush to acquire social statuses that were once so desirable in Soviet times, i.e. that of a parent, employee, and family person. Today, prestige is based on acquiring a good education and career, processes on which they are betting (Blum et al., 2009: 158–159).
Young people also have very specific demands for quality: quality of life, quality of intimate relations, and quality of parenting. All of this has motivated young people to ceaselessly look for an appropriate job, home, partner, and to invest in their children, preferring quality to quantity.
Efficient family-planning tools have separated marital, reproductive, and sexual behavior, transforming these into three different spheres of self-fulfillment. All of these stages, now stretched out through time, reflect individual needs and perspectives. The increasing dispersal of timing of marital relations and childbearing reveals that young people are postponing important demographic events further and further.
Russians have only recently acquired the opportunity to efficiently manage the most prolific period of their lives — youth. They attempt to start planning their lives as early as possible and to construct it sequentially in a personally tailored way.
The chapter examines the ideology, goals and instruments of the soviet, post-soviet and current family policy in Russia, and discuses the principal ways what's to be done to improve the performance of the demographic and family policy in response to the social and demographic challenges of the 21st century.
Family policy in contemporary Russia has inherited many of the policy objectives and instruments of the former Soviet Union, while also preserving certain archaic aspects of pre-Soviet Russian family policy. Indeed, because Russian family policy has historically been contradictory in both its ideological underpinnings and its demographic and social consequences—often mythologising past social and demographic realities—post-Soviet family policy in Russia has no clear cementing ideology and is woven together from poorly structured and disjointed elements.
One of the key developments in 20th and 21st century history has been the demographic revolution, or demographic transition, which radically changed the course of fundamental demographic processes involving the birth rate, mortality and migration. These changes have had, and continue to have, a significant effect on all aspects of life in modern and developing societies, including their economies, social relations, culture and political life. In addition, they greatly influence the crucial sphere of international relations, and create unprecedented challenges for international security.
Demographic change affects the international situation both directly and indirectly, through the social processes experienced by all societies which embrace this change.
The mortality of advanced-age residents of Russia has remained stable and high for several decades. However, the steady increase in life expectancy that started in the mid-2000s is largely due to decreased mortality among the elderly. The decrease in mortality among Moscow residents over age 80 was especially large during this period. We found evidence of a systematic deviation of these dynamics from the patterns observed in countries with reliable mortality statistics. Assuming that the patterns observed in these countries are applicable to Russia, we took the possible underestimation of mortality into account and corrected the life expectancy estimates for the residents of Moscow, Russia, and the Central Federal District at age 80, at retirement age, and at birth.
Statistical physics is the branch that uses different mathematical methods in solving not only physical problems. The field of application may be the interdisciplinary studies of many social phenomena. The reason is that they have a stochastic nature. The aim of the paper is to display the opportunities of using the methods of natural sciences in the social sciences. The example is suggested of the joint research in demography, sociology, statistics, and ethnography of ethnically mixed families. These are the marital couples where a husband and a wife consider themselves as belonging to different ethnicities. It was demonstrated that application of the reasons used in the kinetic theory helps us to introduce new measure that describes mutual attitudes for a specific combination of ethnicities. The idea of this measure calculation is quite simple. We simply relate the number of marriages established from the reasons of full randomness of collisions of “particles” (persons) and their connection irrespective to their type, and the phenomenology – the actual number of families for a given combination of husband’s and wife’s ethnicity observed form the population censuses. What we mean by “collision” is any form of personal or social interaction (meeting, conversation, participation in small groups at work, family, schooling, tourism, journey, sports, etc.). This measure may be called inter-ethnic propensity, or its inverse value as an inter-ethnic distance. One more new measure is used to describe a propensity to form ethnically mixed marriage with a spouse of any different ethnicity. Numerically it is calculated as a share of ethnically mixed families of a given ethnicity among all the families of this ethnicity. Similar to chemistry, it may be called “valency”. It was shown that in such multiethnic country like Russia both measures cannot be estimated as the good and adequate ones. The reason is a significant inhomogeneity of ethnicity distribution by territory of the country. Some of such peoples have their own national republics, some do not have such administrative-territorial organization but reside in a few number of regions. However this does not mean that the measures introduced are the wrong ones. Simply before their calculation we require to perform co-called “geographical” decomposition that explicitly takes into account the fact and the extent of territorial distribution of population of all the ethnicities in this country by regions. In terms of kinetic approach for gases it may have the analogy of various density of different particles by the volume they are placed in, that is required at consideration of their physical properties. The paper also aims to display that using of methods from natural sciences lets us produce much more clear explanation, more simple understanding, modeling, interpretation of the processes under consideration. Description of the models and measures mentioned, the results of the approach suggested were published in the new electronic journal Demographic Review (Demograficheskoe obozrenie, in Russian) and presented at the international conferences at the HRU Higher School of Economics and Moscow State University. As a new problem statement in ethnography not solved yet an analogy with thermodynamics is suggested for analysis of ethnical population structure and its evolution. Some questions in this field are: Is the entropy actually growing over time as applied to the composition of population by ethnicities? May the dynamics of the population of the USA considered as the well-known “melting pot” for ethnicities be interpreted in the way similar to the second law of thermodynamics? Why this law is not valid in the general case for population ethnic structure at the level of city or country?
In this paper we draw upon the unique natural experiment of post-communist transitions to show how the interaction between democratization and economic liberalization impacts health. We argue that, if occurring simultaneously, these transformations reduce overall uncertainty and thus improve health. Two concrete mechanisms are at work: first, people suffer less from stress-related diseases, and second, they start investing more in their own health. To capture the proposed theoretical mechanisms, we use stress-caused mortality and private expenditures on health as our dependent variables. Empirically, we employ mediation analysis with country and time fixed effects. We find that, ceteris paribus, democratization and economic liberalization exert a cumulatively positive impact upon health. Our findings should be relevant to other countries that undergo politico-economic transitions.
The study explores the so-called ‘Kyrgyz clinics’ and their place in the migrant infrastructure of Moscow, Russia. We focus on the unique status of these clinics specifically aimed at and tailored for the migrants’ medical and psychosocial needs. We have found that the role of Kyrgyz clinics is not limited to the provision of affordable medical services. It is a milieu where the migrant patients come with their problems to migrant doctors, and where they can use their native language and cultural code to talk about their health problems. In particular, Kyrgyz doctors at such clinics play the role of intermediaries between migrants and other medical institutions of Moscow, as migrants often lack information about budget healthcare services in Moscow. We also briefly outline how migrants use informal strategies and networks to overcome the barriers to receiving medical care.
This paper investigates the effect of political regimes on healthcare outcomes with a novel approach. Instead of focusing on cross-country comparisons, like most studies do, we utilize the within-country variation of political regimes across individual regions. We use the case of the Russian Federation, where large sub-national differences exist in both health outcomes and political regimes in different provinces. General differences in sub-national politics in Russia have been subject of investigation of a large literature our paper adds to. The paper shows that the effect of political regimes on health is heterogeneous and depends on the type of health problems more salient for the region. More pluralist and competitive regimes are able to produce better results than the less competitive ones in rich regions, while in poor regions political pluralism and competition have an adverse impact on health.
Background: Russia has the largest area of any country in the world and has one of the highest cardiovascular mortality rates. Over the past decade, the number of facilities able to perform percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) has increased substantially. We quantify the extent to which the constraints of geography make equitable access to this effective technology difficult to achieve. Methods: Hospitals performing PCIs in 2010 and 2015 were identified and combined with data on the population of districts throughout the country. A network analysis tool was used to calculate road-travel times to the nearest PCI facility for those aged 40+ years. Results: The number of PCI facilities increased from 144 to 260 between 2010 and 2015. Overall, the median travel time to the closest PCI facility was 48minutes in 2015, down from 73 minutes in 2010. Two-thirds of the urban population were within 60 minutes’ travel time to a PCI facility in 2015, but only one-fifth of the rural population. Creating 67 new PCI facilities in currently underserved urban districts would increase the population share within 60 minutes’ travel to 62% of the population, benefiting an additional 5.7 million people currently lacking adequate access. Conclusions: There have been considerable but uneven improvements in timely access to PCI facilities in Russia between 2010 and 2015. Russia has not achieved the level of access seen in other large countries with dispersed populations, such as Australian and Canada. However, creating a relatively small number of further PCI facilities could improve access substantially, thereby reducing inequality.
This is a general review of the situation, main patterns, challenges and opportunities of active ageing in Russia in regards to the level of employment of older people. The paper addresses the very specific developments of ageing of the Russian population and the resulting employment situation of older adults. It highlights the importance of education and professional training after age 45, age-friendly workspaces and flexible working arrangements.
Plus d'un quart de siècle après la fin de l'URSS, la libéralisation des prix en Russie et l'adoption de différents modèles pour les républiques d'Asie centrale ont des répercussions majeures sur le bilan de ces pays. La perte brutale des acquis socio-économiques au sein d'une population encore largement marquée par un mode de fonctionnement soviétique a vulnérabilisé des pans entiers de ces sociétés, exacerbant les inégalités. La reconfiguration des mobilités (exil, déplacements forcés, migrations économiques et environnementales) implique un jeu d'échelles nouveau qui nécessite de s'intéresser aux conditions d'origine des migrants, aux stratégies migratoires et à la recomposition de sociétés d'origine. Ces derniers sont en effet dépendants des contextes, politique et économique notamment, du pays d'accueil : la Russie. Ils sont également liés par différentes formes d'allégeance aux réseaux et aux systèmes de loyauté. Dans ces sociétés post-soviétiques, l'assurance de la survie de la communauté, de la famille, de la parentèle est à rechercher dans le retissage de normes et de réseaux encastrés qui ont préexisté à la fin de l'URSS et se sont remodelés face à de nouvelles contingences. Mais la circulation des migrants les expose à des risques sanitaires et épidémiologiques. Les enjeux de l'accès aux soins se posent de manière aiguë. Les politiques préventives concernant notamment l'infection par VIH/SIDA, les hépatites, la tuberculose sont confrontées à une disqualification du système de santé publique et s'accompagnent de situations très anxiogènes lors des migrations pour de nombreux ressortissants d'Asie centrale. Les vulnérabilités sont donc multidimensionnelles et les représentations du corps et de la maladie jouent un rôle non négligeable dans les mentalités. Aussi la santé des migrants représente-t-elle un enjeu majeur dans les républiques post-soviétiques mais aussi universel dans le monde globalisé qui les façonne.