Bachelor
2017/2018

## Data Analysis in Sociology

Category 'Best Course for New Knowledge and Skills'

Type:
Compulsory course (Sociology and Social Informatics)

Area of studies:
Sociology

Delivered by:
Department of Sociology

When:
2 year, 3, 4 module

Mode of studies:
offline

Language:
English

ECTS credits:
4

### Course Syllabus

#### Abstract

This course lasts for three years. The 1st year aims at beginners. The course goes from introductory topics (variable types, hypothesis testing, descriptive statistics) to some statistics and methods (chi-square, t-test, nonparametric statistics, one-way ANOVA, and linear regression). The course covers the building blocks of quantitative data analysis with the goal of training students to be informed consumers and producers of quantitative research. This course is also the starting point for students interested in pursuing advanced methods training or planning to use quantitative methods in their own research.

#### Learning Objectives

- develop skills necessary to solve typical problems in analysing social data in R software environment

#### Expected Learning Outcomes

- Conduct statistical analyses in RStudio
- Choose appropriate methods and techniques for certain types of variables and certain aims of the analysis
- Give meaningful interpretation of statistical results: regression coefficients, tables, plots and diagrams (produced in R)
- Perform data transformations
- Represent graphically the results of the statistical analyses
- Create analytical reports describing all the stages of analysis and interpreting its results

#### Course Contents

- Research hypotheses vs. statistical hypotheses. Variable typesThe cycle of research. Data analysis as part of the research process. Posing and testing hypotheses. Research hypotheses vs. statistical hypotheses testing. Directed and non-directed hypotheses. Dependent and independent variables. Variable scales: nominal, ordinal, continuous (interval and ratio). Descriptive statistics of a variable depending on its type. Getting to know R and RStudio.
- Central tendency measuresMean, median, mode. Standard normal distribution and its use. Z-scores. Moments of distributions. Distribution plots and reading them. Sources of bias in data. Interpretation of z-scores. Mean as a data model.
- Chi-squareObserved and expected frequencies. Measures of association for categorical variables. Reading and interpreting chi-square tests. Assumptions of chi-square. Independence. Standardised residuals. Odds ratio. Chi-square and other association measures in R.
- Two means comparisonIndependent and paired samples. Assumptions behind the t-test. One-sample t-test. Two-sample t-tests. Nonparametric tests for two samples and for multiple samples. Reading and interpreting means comparison. Confidence intervals. Means comparison in R
- One-way ANOVAAssumptions and usage of ANOVA. Between-group and within-group variance, their ratio. Planned and non-planned comparisons; corrections. Post hoc comparisons for equal and unequal variances. Reading and interpreting ANOVA. One-way ANOVA in R. Presenting the results of ANOVA. Getting to know RMarkdown: reports and slide shows.
- Linear regressionCorrelations. Research problems for correlational analysis. Correlation coefficients for different types of data. ANOVA, correlation, regression as linear models. Building a linear regression. Ordinary least squares. Fitting the regression line. Assumptions behind linear regression. Reading and interpreting regressions. Presenting and interpreting a linear regression. Categorical predictors in a linear regression. Dummy-coding. Linear regression in R. Plotting linear regressions in R (case studies).
- Linear regression with multiple predictorsThe concept of interaction effects for categorical by categorical, categorical by continuous, continuous by continuous variables. Effect coding. Centring. Multicollinearity. Reading and interpreting interaction models in a linear regression. Testing for interactions in R. Reporting and interpreting a linear regression with interactions.

#### Interim Assessment

- Interim assessment (4 module)0.2 * Exam + 0.2 * In-class activity + 0.6 * Projects

#### Bibliography

#### Recommended Core Bibliography

- Denis, D. J. (2016). Applied Univariate, Bivariate, and Multivariate Statistics. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsebk&AN=1091881
- Kline, R. B. (2016). Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling, Fourth Edition (Vol. Fourth edition). New York: The Guilford Press. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsebk&AN=1078917
- Stowell, S. (2014). Using R for Statistics. Berkeley, CA: Apress. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsebk&AN=1174344
- Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2014). Using Multivariate Statistics: Pearson New International Edition (Vol. 6th ed). Harlow, Essex: Pearson. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=nlebk&AN=1418064

#### Recommended Additional Bibliography

- Agresti, A. (2013). Categorical Data Analysis (Vol. Third edition). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsebk&AN=769330
- Agresti, A., & Finlay, B. (2014). Statistical Methods for the Social Sciences: Pearson New International Edition (Vol. Pearson new international ed., 4. ed). Harlow England: Pearson. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=nlebk&AN=1418314
- Beh, E. J., & Lombardo, R. (2014). Correspondence Analysis : Theory, Practice and New Strategies. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsebk&AN=842814
- Brown, T. A. (2015). Confirmatory Factor Analysis for Applied Research, Second Edition (Vol. Second edition). New York: The Guilford Press. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsebk&AN=831411
- Crawley, M. J. (2013). The R Book (Vol. Second Edition). Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsebk&AN=531630
- Little, T. D. (2013). The Oxford Handbook of Quantitative Methods. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsebk&AN=603942