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Regular version of the site
Master 2018/2019

Philosophy of Law

Type: Elective course (Philosophical Anthropology)
Area of studies: Philosophy
Delivered by: School of Philosophy
When: 1 year, 3 module
Mode of studies: Full time
Instructors: Boris Kashnikov
Master’s programme: Philosophical Antropology
Language: English
ECTS credits: 5

Course Syllabus


This is elective course, based on knowledge and competences which were provided by the following disciplines: ● Philosophy. ● Political Science ● General Sociology The following knowledge and competences are needed to study the discipline: ● The basic skills of philosophical analysis ● The basic knowledge of the foundations of law both logical and normative ● The knowledge of the basics of international and domestic legislation
Learning Objectives

Learning Objectives

  • The students are supposed to become professed in the knowledge of the major existent theories of the philosophy of law, to develop the skills of philosophical analysis of the major issues of law.
Expected Learning Outcomes

Expected Learning Outcomes

  • The students get basic understanding on the relations of law and normativity. Including the relations between law and morals
  • The students are supposed to understand the logic of the Natural Law and Divine Command Theory and to be able to classify the major approaches.
  • Classical legal positivism from Bentham to Austin is based on very similar logic, which the students are supposed to grasp. They will also know the major theories belonging to the trend
  • The students are supposed to know the basics of the modern theories of legal positivism and be able to compare the major theories
  • The students shall know the basic works of Dworkin and be able to characterize them
  • The students are able to characterize the specificity of legal realism and and give an account of major names, ideas and works
  • The students will be well professed in the ideas of Foucault and be able to characterize this line of thought
  • Feminist jurisprudence is based on Feminist philosophy. The students are supposed to understand the basics of this philosophy and be able to give an account of major works and ideas of feminist jurisprudence.
  • Utilitarian and Kantian theories of punishment constitute the basic approach. The students are supposed to know the major difference between the two approaches and be able to understand the emerging newest conceptions
  • Such issues of the philosophy of international law as international humanitarian law, international criminal law and the law of self-determination are based each of a certain philosophical approach, which is to be known and understood.
  • The major theories of justice, such as Rawls, Nozick, Gauthiers and the major trends of liberalism, libertarianism, communitarianism, feminism, marxism must be known and the logic of these theories must be recognized,
  • The students will know the basic facts about the development of the brand and will be able to give an account of major representatives and their ideas
Course Contents

Course Contents

  • Philosophy, Ethics and Law
    The nature of jurisprudence. Descriptive, critical and normative legal theory. The rational techniques of philosophy and the sphere of law. The clarification of concepts and reexamination of values. Analytical jurisprudence and Normative jurisprudence. Rational criticism and its application to the sphere of law. Conceptions of Philosophy and various branches of Philosophy. Ethics and ethical theories. Ethical skepticism and relativism. Deontological Theories. Consequentionalism. Virtue ethics. Contemporary theories in ethics. Moral problems. Ethics and Morality. The concept of law. The sphere of law. Moral and legal regulation of actions. Social institutions and normative regulation of social life. Descriptive law and prescriptive law. The problem of moral fidelity and allegiance. Implications of jurisprudence for political, economic and social theory.
  • Natural Law Theory
    The origins of natural law theory in philosophy of Plato and Aristotle. Absolute values. Intuitive apprehension of values. The role of reason. Justice and its inherent connection with law. Human nature as the source of law and justice. Cicero. Roman Law. The relations of law and morality, morality and nature. The systematic statement of natural law theory in philosophy of Thomas Aquinas. Eternal law, natural law, divine law and positive law. Inherent inspiration to good. Life, knowledge, procreation, society, and reasonable conduct as basic good. The priority of good to the right. Mala in se. The principle of proportionality. Double effect. Lex iniusta non est lex. Corruption of law. Thomas Hobbes. John Lock. Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Hugo Grotius. Declaration des droits de l’homme et du citoyen. The traces of the Natural Law Theory in the Just War Theory. The limitations of natural law theory. The decline of the Natural Law in the 18th century. The critique of Bentham and Alf Ross. The contemporary revival of natural law. Nurnberg war trial. Crime against Humanity. The post-war recognition of human rights and their expression in declarations such as the Charter of the United Nations, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the European Convention on Human Rights, and the Declaration of Delhi on the Rule of Law of 1959.The theory of John Finnis and the tradition of analytic jurisprudence. “Natural Law and Natural Rights” as a major restatement of classical natural law theory. The neo-Thomism. The special logic of defining goodness. Primary and secondary principles of natural law. Seven ‘basic forms of human flourishing’ and nine ‘basic requirements of practical reasonableness’. The requirement of the community. Conception of natural rights. The account of law. Hard and soft natural law. The recent critique of Finnis. Lon Fuller and his idea of The Internal Morality of Law.
  • Classical Legal Positivism. Jeremy Bentham and John Austin
    The idea of positivism. The major stages of positivism. The combination of empiricism and rationalism. The idea that a legal system is a ‘closed logical system. The separation of law as it laid down from what is should be morally. The method of suspending moral judgement. The classical school of English legal positivism. Jeremy Bentham. Demystification of common law. Bentham as Luther of jurisprudence. Major legislative reforms of the English law of evidence of 1843, 1851, and 1898 inspired by Bentham. Natural law and private opinion in disguise. The “dog” law. The principle of publicity. Codification of law. Two parts of law: the directive part which announces the conduct to be done and the incitative part. John Austin’s critique of natural law theory. “Laws properly so called”. Laws ‘improperly so called’.The distinction of analytical and normative jurisprudence. The role of utilitarianism. The command theory of law. Austin’s ‘gunman’ theory of authority. The concept of sanctions. The concept of sovereignty. Four features of a command (wish, sanction, expression of a wish, generality and identifiable political superior, or sovereign). Sanctions.
  • Modern legal positivism
    Contemporary legal positivism. Its three theses: The separability thesis. The pedigree thesis, The discretion thesis. Hans Kelzen and his “pure” theory of law. Kantian background. The separation of sein and sollen. Law as a system of norms. The idea of “Grundnorm”. Its highest level of generality. Lasting effectiveness of the basic norm and its assumed validity. The formal nature of the basic norm. Value-free account of law. Essential individualism of legal positivism. The ideological link with earl capitalism. Neutral idea of validity. Monopolization of force as the only function of law. Value relativism. Sanctions. Law s coercion. Objectively valid norm vs. subjective validity. Hierarchy of norms. The critique of Raz and Harris. H.L.A.Hart. “The Concept of Law”. Humean background. The usage of linguistic techniques. The critique of Austin. “Gunman Writ Large”. The acknowledgement of the ‘core of indisputable truth in the doctrines of natural law’ Minimum content of natural law. Law as a system of rules. Primary rules and secondary rules. The rules of recognition, change and adjudication. “Minimum content theory” of natural law in later legal polisitvism. The discretion of the judge is to fill in the gaps between the legal rules.
  • Ronald Dworkin. Moral Integrity of Law
    The criticism of Hart’s model of rules. Riggs v. Palmer case. Henningsen v. Bloomfield Motors Inc. case. An assault on legal positivism. The critique of the model of rules. Non-rule standards in law. The difference of legal principles and rules. The integration of law and morality. The unity of value. The possibility to go beyond rules and apply to principles and policies in legal cases. Appeal to moral principles as the central part of judicial decision making. Rights as trumps on the goals of policy. Judge as an author in the chain of common law. The concept of the ideal judge. (Hercules). Law as interpretive concept. The system of social justice. The ideal of equality.
  • Legal realism
    American and Scandinavian branches of legal realism. The rejection of ponderous metaphysics and absolute values. Law is what the judge do. Realism as technology. American realism. Oliver Wendell Holmes, Karl N Llewellyn, and Jerome Frank. “The life of the law has not been logic”. The possibility of ‘free play” and the discretion of a judge. Law as prediction of what courts will decide. Llewellyn’s realist manifesto. Holmes and the device of the ‘bad man’. Llewellyn: law as a ‘technology’ rather than a philosophy. Grand style and the formal style of judicial opinions. Jerome Frank and his radical realism. Alf Ross. The nonexistence of justice. Hägerström. Legal norms as fantasies of the mind. Olivecrona’s Law as a matter of Fact. Psychological approach to legal theory
  • Historical and anthropological jurisprudence
    Historical jurisprudence. Law as the result of historical development. The specificity of the Western law. Civil Law and Common Law. Culture, custom, and tradition at the very heart of the exposition of the concept of law. Friedrich Karl von Savigny. Law is located in the spirit of the people: the Volksgeist. The protest against codification of law. Lawmaking is only one of the sources of law. The critique. Henry Maine. Evolutionary account of law. Six phases of the development of law. Common ownership was the earliest form of title. The critique of the natural law. Anthropological jurisprudence.’Law’ in tribal societies. Bronislaw Malinowski. Reciprocity as the pattern of law. Hoebel. “The Law of Primitive Man: A Study in Comparative Legal Dynamics Law of Primitive Man”. Gluckman. The study of the Barotse of Northern Rhodesia. Bohannan. The .analysis of the Tiv of Nigeria. Legal pluralism.
  • Critical and Postmodern legal theory
    The attack on the idea of neutral principles of law and morality. The influence of the philosophy of Nietzsche. The inversion of values. The function of public values as validation and maintenance of oppression. Marxist critique of the substantive doctrines of the law. interdisciplinary approach of critical legal studies. The Politics of Law. The denial of law as a system. Four of Critical Legal Studies principles (indeterminacy, antiformalism, contradiction, and marginality). Deconstruction of the legal thought. Antiformalism and skepticism. Postmodernist legal theory. Habermas, Foucault and Derrida. Jean-François Lyotard on ‘The Postmodern Condition”. Redundancy of metanarratives. Four types of subjectivity. Onslaught on the Enlightenment and rationalism including analytical tradition. The death of the subject. Jacques Lacan. The idea of ‘deconstruction’. Skeptical attitude to the idea of rights.
  • Feminist Jurisprudence
    Major strands of feminism: Liberal feminism, Radical feminism, Postmodern feminism, Difference feminism. The concern with equality and the concern with difference as major character traits. Public–private division. The presumed gender blondeness of legal theory. The political nature of feminism. ‘The personal is political’ Suppression and exploitation of women as the major sources of the movement. The practical nature of feminist philosophy and comprehension of justice. The facts of subjugation of women all over the world. The tacit bias against women in dominant legal culture. Exploitative power and law of patriarchal society. The case of rape and utmost resistance requirement. Law as reflecting the male point of view. The ethics of care against the ethics of justice. The possibility of woman’s morality and a special virtue of care. Gilligan’s critique of moral psychology of Colberg. Rights as formal, hierarchical, and patriarchal. Critical evaluation of feminism. Its utopianism and radicalism.
  • Crime and Punishment
    Punishment as inevitable violation of fundamental rights of a person. The justification for the criminal law. Criminalization and compensation, the case of Robert Nozick. Deterrence model of punishment. Punishment of the innocent. Scapegoating. Utilitarian approach to punishment. Retributivist approach to punishment. Kantian perspective. The ideal of punishment as the avoidance of parasitism and free riding. Mental states, excuses and strict liability. The theory of culpability and responsibility. The idea of agency, choice and intention. Sophocles drama “Oedipus Rex”. Contemporary systems of criminal responsibility. Intention, purpose, knowledge, recklessness and negligence. Malice aforethought. Mental states of the wrongdoer and responsibility. Mens ria (guilty mind). Commission of the offense
  • Philosophy of International Law
    The law of peoples and the possibility of international justice. International law as a primitive legal system (Kelzen). National Self-defense. War. The conditions of Jus ad Bellum. Just wars? The conditions of Jus in Bello. The moral status of combatants. Non combatants in war. The status of terrorism. Terrorism, torture and just war. Jus Post Bellum.
  • Theories of justice
    Language, Logic and Meaning of Justice. Utilitarian Theory of Justice. The Theory of Justice of John Rawls. The Justice of Political Liberalism. Libertarian Theory of Justice by Robert Nozick. Justice by Agreement by David Just War Theory Gauthier. Marxism as a Theory of Justice. Feminism and Justice. Communitarian Critique of Justice. The Russian Historical Discourse of Justice.
Assessment Elements

Assessment Elements

  • non-blocking Homework
  • non-blocking Essay of no more the 10 thousand characters
  • non-blocking Research paper
  • non-blocking Oral exam
Interim Assessment

Interim Assessment

  • Interim assessment (3 module)
    0.25 * Essay of no more the 10 thousand characters + 0.25 * Homework + 0.25 * Oral exam + 0.25 * Research paper


Recommended Core Bibliography

  • Bentham, J., Burns, J. H., & Hart, H. L. A. (1996). An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsebk&AN=12348
  • Carty, A. (2017). Philosophy of International Law (Vol. Second edition). Edinburgh: EUP. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsebk&AN=1585023
  • Dworkin, R. (2011). Justice for Hedgehogs. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsebk&AN=364811
  • Dworkin, R. (2013). Taking Rights Seriously. London: Bloomsbury Academic. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsebk&AN=602553
  • Foucault, M. (1995). Discipline and Punish : The Birth of the Prison (Vol. 2nd Vintage books ed). New York: Vintage. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsebk&AN=733102
  • Germain, C. B. (1983). In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women’s Development. By Carol Gilligan. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1982. 184 pp. $15.00. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsbas&AN=edsbas.C0AE40A5
  • Holmes, O. W. J. (1920). Collected legal papers / by Oliver Wendell Holmes. United States, North America: London : Constable, 1920. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsbas&AN=edsbas.9AFE9D19
  • Karl N Llewellyn. (2008). The Bramble Bush : The Classic Lectures on the Law and Law School. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsebk&AN=1201316
  • Kelsen, H. (1941). The Pure Theory of Law and Analytical Jurisprudence. Harvard Law Review, 55(1), 44–70. https://doi.org/10.2307/1334739
  • Llewellyn, K. N. (2008). Jurisprudence : Realism in Theory and Practice. New Brunswick: Routledge. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsebk&AN=395715
  • Llewellyn, K. N. (Karl N. 1893-1962. (1960). The common law tradition : deciding appeals / Karl N. Llewellyn. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsbas&AN=edsbas.2651068F
  • Llewellyn, K. N., & Hoebel, E. A. (1941). The Cheyenne Way : Conflict and Case Law in Primitive Jurisprudence. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsebk&AN=15349
  • Nozick, R. (2013). Anarchy, State, and Utopia. New York: Basic Books. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsebk&AN=677086
  • Pruitt, L. R. (1994). A Survey of Feminist Jurisprudence. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsbas&AN=edsbas.C1A87413
  • Rawls, J. (DE-588)118598678, (DE-576)209078766. (1999). A theory of justice / John Rawls. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edswao&AN=edswao.08199320X
  • Tasioulas, J., & Besson, S. (2010). The Philosophy of International Law. Oxford: OUP Oxford. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsebk&AN=316650
  • Wacks, R. (2012). Understanding Jurisprudence : An Introduction to Legal Theory (Vol. Third edition). Oxford: OUP Oxford. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsebk&AN=678117

Recommended Additional Bibliography

  • Alexander, Y., & Friedlander, R. A. (2019). Self-determination : National, Regional, And Global Dimensions. London: Routledge. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsebk&AN=2147459
  • Aristotle. (2012). The Nicomachean Ethics. [United States]: Start Publishing LLC. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsebk&AN=811459
  • BODANSKY, D. (2015). Legal Realism and its Discontents. Leiden Journal of International Law, 28(2), 267–281. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0922156515000072
  • Bohannan, P. (2018). Justice and Judgment Among the Tiv. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsebk&AN=1753338
  • Brownlee, K. (2004). The Oxford Handbook of Jurisprudence and Philosophy of Law (Book). Journal of Moral Philosophy, 1(2), 229–231. https://doi.org/10.1177/174046810400100209
  • Caliman, M. L. (1983). THE POLITICS OF LAW: A PROGRESSIVE CRITIQUE, edited by David Kairy. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edssch&AN=edssch.oai%3aescholarship.org%2fark%3a%2f13030%2fqt6f79z56s
  • Campbell, T. D. (2016). The Legal Theory of Ethical Positivism. [Place of publication not identified]: Routledge. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsebk&AN=1432550
  • Dagan, H. (2018). The Real Legacy of American Legal Realism. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies, 38(1), 123–146. https://doi.org/10.1093/ojls/gqy001
  • Dinnen, S. (2003). Law, order and the state in Papua New Guinea. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsbas&AN=edsbas.23C35223
  • Dworkin, R. (2014). A new philosophy of international law. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsbas&AN=edsbas.9DA813D2
  • Dworkin, R. (2015). From Justice in robes to Justice for hedgehogs / De Justicia con toga a Justicia para erizos. Problema Anuario de Filosofía y Teoría Del Derecho, (9), 3–22. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edssci&AN=edssci.S2007.43872015000100001
  • Finnis, J. (2011). Natural Law and Natural Rights (Vol. 2nd ed). Oxford: OUP Oxford. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsebk&AN=405960
  • Fitzpatrick, P., & Bergeron, J. H. (2018). Europe’s Other : European Law Between Modernity and Post Modernity. London: Routledge. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsebk&AN=1999352
  • Foblets, M.-C., & Renteln, A. D. (2009). Multicultural Jurisprudence : Comparative Perspectives on the Cultural Defense. Oxford: Hart Publishing. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsebk&AN=280761
  • Foucault, M. (2013). The Order of Things : An Archaeology of Human Sciences (Vol. Unabridged). New York: Vintage. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsebk&AN=737821
  • Goodrich, P. (1986). Reading the Law : a Critical Introduction to Legal Method and Techniques. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsbas&AN=edsbas.C185E911
  • Hardin, F. M. (2018). What We Owe To Each Other. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsbas&AN=edsbas.2C9D85AD
  • Himma, K. E., & Bix, B. (2016). Law and Morality. Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsebk&AN=1552890
  • Hoebel, E. A. (1967). The Law of Primitive Man : A Study in Comparative Legal Dynamics. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsebk&AN=282333
  • I.V. TUMAYKIN. (2018). Law and Postmodernism’s Discours: The Duality of Explanation of the Modern Social World. Вестник Донского Государственного Технического Университета, (3), 340. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsdoj&AN=edsdoj.9e02b2c7c3854e7d925dea4f59e1f14f
  • Johnstone, G. (2011). Restorative Justice : Ideas, Values, Debates (Vol. 2nd ed). Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsebk&AN=441629
  • Jovanović Slađana. (2005). Ian Ward: Introduction to critical legal theory, Cavendish Publishing, London, 2004, str. 215. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsbas&AN=edsbas.862276F8
  • Kelsen, H. (2017). General Theory of Law and State. Abingdon: Routledge. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsebk&AN=1550811
  • MacIntyre, A. C. (2007). After Virtue : A Study in Moral Theory, Third Edition (Vol. 3rd ed). Notre Dame, Ind: University of Notre Dame Press. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsebk&AN=1226600
  • Maine, H. S. (2017). Ancient Law. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsebk&AN=1563849
  • Malinowski, B. (2013). Crime and Custom in Savage Society. New Brunswick, NJ: Routledge. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsebk&AN=596546
  • Mihaela Haldan. (2016). Why punish? Why not cope with it? Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsbas&AN=edsbas.C6C5D9C1
  • Misgeld, D. (1997). The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge (Book). Canadian Journal of Sociology, 22(2), 278. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=sih&AN=10430130
  • Phillips, A. (1955). The Judicial Process among the Barotse of Northern Rhodesia. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsbas&AN=edsbas.4C6AFD68
  • Re, L. (2018). Feminism(S) and the Law. Old Legacies and New Challenges. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsbas&AN=edsbas.58A42188
  • Rodriguez, B. V., & Zambrano, P. (2018). One Myth of the Classical Natural Law Theory: Reflecting on the “Thin” View of Legal Positivism. Ratio Juris, 31(1), 9–32. https://doi.org/10.1111/raju.12196
  • Schumann, K. F. (1980). Discipline and Punish. The Birth of the Prison. Organization Studies, 1(2), 200–201. https://doi.org/10.1177/017084068000100211
  • Tinder, G. (1971). Doing and Deserving: Essays in the Theory of Responsibility, by Feinberg Joel. (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1970. Pp. 299. $10.00.). American Political Science Review, (03), 788. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsrep&AN=edsrep.a.cup.apsrev.v65y1971i03p788.789.13
  • Tumim, J. S. (1994). Janet Semple, Bentham’s Prison: A Study of the Panopticon Penitentiary, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1993, pp. 344. Utilitas, (01), 135. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsrep&AN=edsrep.a.cup.utilit.v6y1994i01p135.138.00
  • Twining, W. (2012). Karl Llewellyn and the Realist Movement (Vol. 2nd ed). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsebk&AN=494759