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Regular version of the site
Master 2019/2020

History of Archaeological Methods, Theories and Legal Framework

Category 'Best Course for Career Development'
Category 'Best Course for Broadening Horizons and Diversity of Knowledge and Skills'
Category 'Best Course for New Knowledge and Skills'
Type: Compulsory course (Classical and Oriental Archaeology)
Area of studies: History
When: 1 year, 2-4 module
Mode of studies: offline
Master’s programme: Античная и восточная археология
Language: English
ECTS credits: 5

Course Syllabus

Abstract

The objective of this course is to provide an overview of archaeological methods, theories and regulations. We will focus on the evolution of archaeological methods which were employed throughout the history of study of classical antiquity and ancient Oriental civilizations. We will also look at the main archaeological theories, their origin and their status in present-day science. For a future specialist in Classical and/or Oriental archaeology it is essential to be aware of different laws, regulations and rules that could be applied to the process of archaeological excavations, working with museum collections, etc. (within this course the primary focus will be on the situation in the Russian Federation, Europe and Central Asia). The discipline is taught in modules 1-4 of the first year of study.
Learning Objectives

Learning Objectives

  • Students owns a clear scholarly apparatus, finds their way in the scholarly literature and thus are able to find, evaluate and use information from archaeological evidence.
  • After the development of basic knowledge of archaeology students are able to formulate aims and objectives of their own research, and to identify the evidence required for this and evaluate its representativeness.
  • Students master their ability of scholarly communication in the field of archaeological research, e.g., they can formulate questions in order to get a meaningful answer; find weaknesses in the scholarly position of an opponent; answer the questions posed; logically argue his or her own scholarly position.
Expected Learning Outcomes

Expected Learning Outcomes

  • Two main concepts - concept of time and concept of cultural progress - were discussed in terms of the beginnings of archaeology.
  • Students discuss how social context may influence methods of archaeological studies and theories in Classical Studies in general.
  • Students analyse contemporary methods and fields of archaeological research.
  • History of heritage conservation strategies will be discussed - French Historicism, British Idealism and Italian Pragmatism.
  • Best practice approaches for sustainable restoration of archaeological heritage will be discussed, namely 1) approach each site/region on a case-by-case basis, 2) define the heritage values: natural, historical, architectural, traditional, etc., i.e. what are we actually trying to preserve and why - then act accordingly, 3) sensitively combine modern technologies with ancient ways of life in agriculture, energy and architecture, 4) people-centred approach: people first – architecture second.
Course Contents

Course Contents

  • History of archaeological theory
    The beginnings of archaeology. Concepts of time: Typology and relative chronology (Montelius). Concepts of cultural progress: Evolutionism (Morgan) and diffusionism (ex oriente lux). The development of archaeology in tsarist Russia. The beginnings of archaeology in Turkestan. Interpretations of material-culture patterns: Peoples and cultures (Kossinna, Childe). Archaeology as history: Culture-historical archaeology. The radiocarbon revolution. Archaeology in the Soviet Union: theoretical basis and methodology. Work in Soviet Central Asia. The ‘New Archaeology’ (Binford, Clarke). Post-processualism (Hodder et al.) and the diversification of archaeology. Problems of archeology and the main directions of work during perestroika and in the post-Soviet space (Central Asia).
  • Archaeology and society
    Archaeologists and social context. Archaeology in the Third Reich. Archaeology in the Soviet Union: politics, repression, conformism. Colonial archeology. Archaeology and the public. Archaeology in museums and the media. Archaeology and the state: protection of monuments and rescue (construction) archaeology. Formation of protective legislation and regulation of archaeological work.
  • Contemporary archaeological methodology
    Categories of evidence and pursuit: Burial archaeology, urban archaeology, landscape archaeology, Geoarchaeology, survey, aerial and satellite surveys. Questions and methods: Migrations, social archaeology, archaeology and language (Renfrew). Historical archeology and written sources. Art-historical methods in archaeology (Winckelmann, Jacobsthal). Mathematics, statistics and digital archaeology.
Assessment Elements

Assessment Elements

  • non-blocking Seminar
  • non-blocking Essay
  • non-blocking Exam
    По усмотрению преподавателя и по результатам исключительной и активной работы студента на семинарах в форме: дискуссий на заданные темы на основе материалов, освоенных в ходе самостоятельной работы, устных выступлениях на семинарах при демонстрации знания основной проблематики курса, содержания вопросов лекционных и семинарских занятий, историографической традиции, выступления с докладами, сопровождаемыми презентациями, успешное прохождение контроля знаний в виде письменных работ по пройденному материалу, студенту может быть выставлена высшая оценка автоматически.
Interim Assessment

Interim Assessment

  • Interim assessment (4 module)
    0.2 * Essay + 0.6 * Exam + 0.2 * Seminar
Bibliography

Bibliography

Recommended Core Bibliography

  • Díaz-Andreu, M., & Champion, T. (2015). Nationalism and Archaeology in Europe. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsebk&AN=880883
  • Härke, H. (1998). Archaeologists and Migrations. Current Anthropology, 39(1), 19–45. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=sih&AN=161595
  • Shnirel’man, V. A. (2013). Archeology and Society-A Complicated Relationship. Anthropology & Archeology of Eurasia, 52(2), 5–12. https://doi.org/10.2753/AAE1061-1959520201

Recommended Additional Bibliography

  • Brandherm, D. (2014). Heinrich Härke (ed.): Archaeology, Ideology and Society: The German Experience. Gesellschaften und Staaten im Epochenwandel 7, 2002. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsbas&AN=edsbas.658CE605
  • Bruce G. Trigger. (2001). Archaeology, Ideology and Society: The German Experience, edited by Heinrich Harke. Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main, 2000. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsbas&AN=edsbas.F11D7365
  • Cerezo-Román, J., Wessman, A., & Williams, H. (2017). Cremation and the Archaeology of Death. Oxford: OUP Oxford. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsebk&AN=1500519
  • Trigger, B. G. (2001). Archaeology, Ideology and Society: The German Experience, edited by Heinrich Harke. Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main, 2000. https://doi.org/10.5334/bha.11204
  • Тихонов, И. (2008). «Это необходимо сделать, чтобы не прослыть за варваров»: российские монархи и археология. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsbas&AN=edsbas.762BA565
  • Энговатова, А. (2013). Сохранение археологического наследия в России: современное состояние. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsbas&AN=edsbas.A8510E97