Year of Graduation
Factors of involving women in engineering
Faculty of Sociology
This research is devoted to the studying and identification of different institutional and sociocultural factors of involving women in engineering. The comparative analysis of these factors was conducted in different periods of time: soviet time and post-soviet time. The indexes of gender segregation in technical professions in the studied periods of time served a basic push to research this topic. Among all number of engineers the rate of women employed in engineering was considerably growing through the whole Soviet period.In the 1980s this proportion was over 50% according to the census of that time., However, in post-soviet time the index of quantity of women in technical professions sharply went down, according to the Russian statistical Yearbook in 2013. This study makes an attempt to give qualitative explanation of given distinction over.Before the beginning of study following objectives were set: to study a gender segregation in technical professions in a dynamics during soviet period and during post-soviet period (2000s and 2010s), to identify and to compare the motives of womens’ choice of technical specialty and profession in soviet and post-soviet time, to reveal the factors of involving of women in technical professions in each of the studied periods of time, to structure and to compare the groups of factors that facilitate and impede the involvement of women in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Maths) in soviet time and post-soviet time. The aim of the study was the realization of comparative analysis of factors of involving women in engineering in soviet and post-soviet periods.In this paper was used the comparatively-historical method to evaluate the role of institutional factors concerning gender segregation on the labour market for different periods: soviet and post-soviet time.Empiric objects of this study are two groups of informants : women who was employed in technical professions in Soviet Union, and women-graduates of faculties with technical orientation of MGTU of the name Baumana. Empirical foundation of the research is based on12 depth interviews.According to the result of done work, it was revealed the number of institutional factors affecting the alignment of gender inequality in technical professions in soviet time. It includes: the historical factor related to the loss of masculine population during the war, factor of direction of economic development on the industrial sphere of labour, ideological factor, factor of social policy. All these factors are closely interrelated with each other. Therefore in a general complex these factors gave an alignment effect of gender inequality in the technical field. In turn, in a post-soviet period an enormous role was played by complete reorganization of the state, which affected the decline of number of women employed in engineering.