Year of Graduation
Philosophical Aspects of the Institutional Division of Basic and Applied Research
Faculty of Philosophy
This master's thesis attempts to disclose the most significant aspects of the emergence and the current state of the institutional division between basic and applied research. The author emphasizes the fact that the genesis of the ideas inherently separate axiological and goal-oriented types of scientific research traces back to the origins of the first scientific programs in Ancient Greece. The author pays special attention to the study of various interpretations of the emergence of the phenomenon of Greek thought in a number of historical works. Addressing the culture-historical context of science allows the development of the ways of reflection on the scientific activity in different epochs to be traced back. Scientific and technological revolution dramatically changed the forms of the interaction between science, industry and the state, and created a new environment for the institutional arrangement of various types of scientific activity. The pivotal role in the process of creation of the new context of the relations between science and state belongs to a scientist and politician of science – Vannevar Bush. His article, dedicated to the creation of a centralized system of support of scientific research in the USA, shaped the definitions of basic and applied research that still remain valid in the present day. Bush on the existence of inherently separate axiological and goal-oriented types of scientific research that formed the basis of political discourse in the field of scientific research in the 20th Century, and shaped the widespread public perception of science and technology exchanges as an unidirectional linear process. This widespread public perception is essentially a simplification of V. Bush’s report, but it is often cited and continues to influence the methods of organization and support of research activities. The conclusion is an attempt to rethink the prevailing notions of scientific and technical exchange as a unidirectional linear process, as well as offering a new classification model, that both takes into account the diversity of the historical experience of scientific and technological progress, and resolves the paradox of the incompatibility of the motives and goals of the basic and applied research.