Year of Graduation
Impact Factors of Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions in 1990-2012
The aim of this study is to investigate the determinants of CO2 emissions. Using the STIRPAT model, we analyze the impact of population, affluence, energy efficiency and trade on the total CO2 emissions of countries with different types of climate policy over the period 1990–2012. The results show at the global level that the population has the greatest impact on CO2 emissions. For non-Annex I countries, the impact of GDP per capita on total CO2 emissions is very high. Significant negative impact of trade on CO2 emissions in Annex I countries attracts attention to the “carbon leakage” problem. The elasticity of energy efficiency is negative in all countries, and is higher in non-Annex I countries. The lowest elasticities are revealed in Annex I countries. Therefore, the empirical results indicate that the impact of population, affluence, energy efficiency, trade and urbanization on CO2 emissions varies in countries with different types of climate policy. It is important to consider these differences by implementing long-term policies for CO2 emissions reduction.