Year of Graduation
Diplomatic Ceremonial of Ancient Rus' 11-13 Centuries
This research is written about diplomatic ceremonial in Old Russia in 11-13th century. The first issue which we analyse is the language in which the negotiations could be usually occurred. We have concluded that apparently the most of Old-Russian princes could communicate with the foreign ambassadors himselve, without the help of the translators. The most popular languages at prince’s court perhaps were Scandiniavian, Polovtsian, Polish and Hungarian. Also in this research we have investigated which actors participated actively in diplomatic process (usually the researchers decreased the significance of the woman’s and prince’s druzhina role). What’s more, the big part of our research we are concetrated on usual traditions in the rrelationships with the enemies (the institute of prisonners, the revenge etc.). Then we analyse, which ceremonials were occurred in the relationships with the friends and the allies (where usually the foreigners were met, who usually were invited in the feasts etc.). Ans in the final part of our research we investigate how the contracts couls fixed (who and by what must have sworn etc.). In addition, we also investigate the institute of the gifts: what was presented usually before and after the assignement of the contract, which gifts were evaluated more.