Year of Graduation
The Motherhood Penalty in the Russian Labor Market
Population and Development
The problem of studying the motherhood penalty is significant due to depopulation trend in Russia. In this research, we estimate the existence of the wage differences between mothers and non-mothers. We examine the theories explaining the wage gap using data from RLMS. There are four theories: Human capital, Work-effort, Compensating differences, Discrimination. Previous studies estimate the wage gap from 4% to 23%. We consider on mothers who have children aged under 18 in comparison with non-mothers. We also analyze the institutional arrangements in Russia and population attitudes towards motherhood and work. In general, the wage penalty is about 11% with no control. When we control all variables combining theories we obtain the penalty for mothers with children under 18. The wage gap declines with the increase of children's age. Marital status, the level of region development and employment rate in the region have a significant influence on the decision to work. The penalty should be eliminated so we offer some kind of policies measures.