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The Formula for the Success of Foreign Policy Sanctions: the USA and the EU as Senders

Student: Daria Smirnova

Supervisor: Andrey N. Scherbak

Faculty: Saint-Petersburg School of Social Sciences and Area Studies

Educational Programme: Political Science (Bachelor)

Year of Graduation: 2018

In this paper, we make an attempt to find the formula for the success of sanctions regimes using quantitative comparative analysis. We analyze 26 sanctions episodes taken from 1992 to 2009. The main sanctions senders in our sample are the United States, the EU and the United Nations. Almost all cases have a unique set of conditions that determine the outcome of the sanctions policy, and in this connection we encountered several difficulties on our way. In the study, we give a discussion about theories of "soft" and "hard" power and refer sanctions to the category of "hard" foreign policy instrument. We also briefly review the institutional structure of US agencies involved in the formulation and implementation of sanctions programs. We devote a considerable part to the institutional development of the European Union in order to define it as an autonomous sanctioning actor.

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