Year of Graduation
Theoretical and Methodological Approach to the Study of Social Organization of Time in the Context of Social Inequalities
The paper reviews various approaches to the analysis of social time to propose a novel methodology to measure social time in postindustrial society in the context of social inequalities. Firstly, we discuss controversial conceptual issues present in previous studies about the nature of time, social time in particular, in a number of philosophical, physical and sociological approaches. The literature review aims at constructing a metatheory, primarily relying on the theories of Mead (1932), Adam (1990), Berger and Luckmann (1991), Elias (2007) and Luhmann (2009). Secondly, we propose a quantitive methodology of social time and its management measurement. Statements in a resulting battery of questions about the organization of social time follow the logic of the developed metatheory. The scales of the developed battery of questions are categorized into three major blocks: individual organization of social time, potential factors influencing it as manifestations of the perception of sociality in Mead’s terms (the interplay of the Self with its outer environment) and the relations between the first two blocks via scales ranging from the biological properties to the primacy of technological advancement suggesting McDonaldization. The social inequalities represented by the social organization of time of different social groups will be also considered. We suppose that relations with social time and various techniques of its social organization differ depending on a person’s social-prescribed and self-prescribed group membership (e.g. marital status, age, material security etc. are considered as delimiting indicators). Therefore, we imply the existence of the causal link between the interiorization of Social-Darwinism ideology, as a manifestation of bilateral stereotypes regarding social groups (Lepikhova et al, 2016) and the principles of adhering to the schedule (Zerubavel, 1985). Although empirical research using the developed methodology will not be conducted in this thesis, our thorough examination of social time and its organization in the context of social inequality can benefit future research in the sociology of time and inequality in particular.