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The Effect of 21st Century Geopolitical Tensions between United States, Russia and EU on Ending the Ukraine Crisis since 2014

Student: Salome Tsnobiladze

Supervisor: Dmitry Novikov

Faculty: Faculty of World Economy and International Affairs

Educational Programme: International Relations in Eurasia (Master)

Year of Graduation: 2019

This dissertation covers the conflict in Ukraine that started in 2014. The aim of this dissertation is to find out the ways through which this crisis can be solved in Ukraine’s best interest. This dissertation mainly uses a desk research, which is primarily based on secondary data. In addition, primary data is also gathered by using an interview. Secondary data is gathered from various secondary sources such as books and articles. It analyzes the background of the conflict through a geopolitical prism. It also discusses the definition of geopolitics and then provides Halford Mackinder’s view on the world dominance. In addition, this dissertation aims to analyze the conflict in such way that the methods and types of warfare used are identified. Russia uses many types of hybrid warfare, which, as it will be showed later, are not new. They used proxy warriors, information warfare and several other methods for achieving their goals. Moreover, a theoretical solution to conflicts will be discussed and finally, a solution to the conflict will be offered. This part offers solutions that are provided by the Realist and Liberal thinkers. The Realist thinkers offer solutions that are based on the attainment of the balance of power. The Liberal counterparts offer solutions that are based on creating a better institutional reciprocity against the defector. Steps towards better countering hybrid warfare are offered at the end, where suggestions to the Ukrainian government and other stakeholders (NGOs, business organizations, etc.) are made in order to avoid damage during a hybrid attack. This dissertation argues that only through a systemic and holistic approach can the conflict be solved in the best interest of Ukraine, as the conflict with Russia’s aims is already almost finished.

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