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Regular version of the site

Bidirectional Eye Movement Model

Student: Kseniya Dovbnyuk

Supervisor: W.Joseph MacInnes

Faculty: Institute for Cognitive Neuroscience

Educational Programme: Cognitive Sciences and Technologies: From Neuron to Cognition (Master)

Final Grade: 9

Year of Graduation: 2020

The study included experimental and modeling parts. The experiments had the goal to investigate inhibition of return, the modeling part – the possibility to classify eye movement parameters by visual task to retrieve human cognitive state. Inhibition of return (IOR) is one of the processes supposed to be responsible for guiding visual tasks, this process is commonly thought to facilitate visual search (Klein & MacInnes, 1999). However, there are evidences that facilitation of return and saccadic momentum are the other processes that guide other visual tasks such as memorization, rating pleasantness, free view (Dodd et al., 2009). For more complex tasks including foraging (Jóhannesson et al., 2016) the presence of IOR is not studied very well. Our research included 2 experiments that investigated IOR in different visual tasks: search, memorization and foraging. We applied gaze-contingent paradigm where the probes were presented at the locations dependent on current fixation location, and saccadic reaction time to the probes provided estimation of IOR in the tasks. Instead of natural scenes a matrix of stimuli was applied (Chetverikov et al., 2018). Experiment 1 included search and memorization. IOR was found only in memorization. This experiment helped reveal the problems of low salience of the probe among the stimuli. Experiment 2 included search, memorization and foraging, and provided the evidence of IOR in all three visual tasks. Furthermore, the results indicated that IOR was encoded in scene coordinates. Restricted Boltzmann Machine (RBM) (Hinton, 2010) in combination with logistic regression was able to classify eye movements by tasks above chance with overall accuracy higher than in previous study (MacInnes et al., 2018). RBM is a generative model, and it was applied to generate saccade parameters by tasks. The reconstructed distribution did not significantly differ from the distribution of the real data. References Chetverikov, A., Kuvaldina, M., MacInnes, W. J., Jóhannesson, Ó. I., & Kristjánsson, Á. (2018). Implicit processing during change blindness revealed with mouse-contingent and gaze-contingent displays. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 1–16. Dodd, M. D., Van der Stigchel, S., & Hollingworth, A. (2009). Novelty is not always the best policy: Inhibition of return and facilitation of return as a function of visual task. Psychological Science, 20(3), 333–339. Hinton, G. (2010). A Practical Guide to Training Restricted Boltzmann Machines (Version 1). In Technical Report UTML TR 2010-003, University of Toronto (Vol. 9). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-35289-8_32 Jóhannesson, Ó. I., Thornton, I. M., Smith, I. J., Chetverikov, A., & Kristjánsson, Á. (2016). Visual Foraging With Fingers and Eye Gaze. I-Perception, 7(2), 2041669516637279. https://doi.org/10.1177/2041669516637279 Klein, R. M., & MacInnes, W. J. (1999). Inhibition of return is a foraging facilitator in visual search. Psychological Science, 10(4), 346–352. MacInnes, W. J., Hunt, A. R., Clarke, A. D. F., & Dodd, M. D. (2018). A Generative Model of Cognitive State from Task and Eye Movements. Cognitive Computation, 10(5), 703–717. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12559-018-9558-9

Full text (added May 20, 2020)

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