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Reception of Tyutchev's poetry in the Russian Symbolism

Student: Ekaterina Arefeva

Supervisor: Konstantin M. Polivanov

Faculty: Institute of Education

Educational Programme: Contemporary Philology in Literature Instruction at Secondary Schools (Master)

Year of Graduation: 2021

The poetry of the Symbolists and their philosophical searches were greatly influenced by the poems of F. I. Tyutchev, who became a recognized poet at that time. Symbolists have repeatedly acknowledged that the figure of Tyutchev for them was significantly higher than other poets of the 19th century, calling him their predecessor and «father» of Symbolism. The philosophy and poetic language of Tyutchev in the purest comprehension were especially reflected in the poetry of the senior Symbolists (D. Merezhkovsky, Z. Gippius, A. Dobrolyubov, V. Bryusov, I. Konevskoi, K. Balmont). However, in the works of the younger Symbolists, the influence of Tyutchev reaches a wide scale mixing with the influence of the Vl. Solovyov’s philosophy, life-creation (zhiznetvorchestvo), mystical attitude and socio-political views of the poets. The reason for such a strong inclination to Tyutchev lies in the similar principles of the worldview and creativity, in the use of symbols and hints to express the inexpressible, in «inseparability and non-fusion» (nerazdel'nost’ and nesliyannost’) of the dark and light, in the insight transcendental being behind the cover of the real world, in psychological parallelism and mythological consciousness. Tyutchev's key texts for the Symbolists were «O chem ty voesh' vetr nochnoy...» and «Silentium!» as well as Tyutchev's «night» texts («Insomnia», «Day and Night», «Svyataya noch’ na nebosclon vzoshla…») and some poems of the Denisiev cycle («O etot ug, o eta Nizza…», «On the eve of the anniversary of August 4, 1864»). In this work, an attempt is made to consider the poetry of Russian Symbolists from the point of view of the reception of Tyutchev's poetic texts, in particular the transformation of Tyutchev's key themes for symbolists: chaos and silence, motives of powerlessness and winglessness, a complex of «night» motives. In addition, the work outlines the context of understanding the role of Tyutchev in the formation of Russian symbolism and the influence on the authors' worldview, which is studied on the basis of articles, memoirs, diary entries and letters. One of the most important research tasks is to consider the transformation of Tyutchev's texts in the poetry of the Symbolists and to analyze the features of this transformation, to highlight the individual poetic reception and embedding of Tyutchev's themes into the poetic world of the authors.

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