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Government Policies As Response To The Cybersecurity Threats: The Case Of Estonia

Student: Giulio tommaso Alfarini

Supervisor: Anna Tarasenko

Faculty: Saint-Petersburg School of Social Sciences and Area Studies

Educational Programme: Political Science and World Politics (Bachelor)

Year of Graduation: 2021

Following the ethnical tensions and cyber-attacks which had as a target Estonia in 2007, the country had demonstrated a great capacity to reform and become a world acclaimed cyber security leader. The analysis conducted in this paper is not only focusing on the casual mechanisms behind the attack and the consequent reforms enacted in Estonia, indeed it also focuses into an holistic descriptive approach by looking at the whole picture before, during and after the attack in which the country was suspended in a rather peculiar, both internally and externally, political climate. The study made use of the Multiple-Streams Framework to identify actors and events in an otherwise confusing set of circumstance. The aim of the study was to shed light, through the use of a narrative approach, on why the Estonian political entrepreneurs were successful in implementing world acclaimed policies and counter measures to the threat of cyber-attacks. The theory perfectly fit the goal of the research by having as a protagonist the role of the political entrepreneurs in leveraging the policy window in order to achieve certain policy outputs. The study elucidated the rapidly changing and ascending topic of cyber security, linking it to national and private industry security, advancing the knowledge and underlining the standards for the creation of cyber security capable states and their enterprises. This was done by following the role model of Estonia in its handling of the crisis by the hands of political entrepreneurs, whom successfully achieved well respected policy outputs due to a mixture of reasons such as: international recognition and esteem, increased powers and control over the already existent e-governance characterizing the country, ensured economical happiness and stability of the ethic Russian minority in the country through a secure digitalized economy and therefore avoiding conflict with it, and the private sector political entrepreneurs enlarged and secured access to the decision making processes for the future.

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