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Comparative Analysis of the Impact of Gender Gap on Risk Attitudes

Student: Ilya Medvedev

Supervisor: Ekaterina Mitrofanova

Faculty: Faculty of Social Sciences

Educational Programme: Comparative Social Research (Master)

Year of Graduation: 2021

Over the past fewdecades, research on attitudes to risk, and especially research on the gender gap, has made significant progress. The attitude to risk is a complex multidisciplinary concept. In turn, research on risky behavior can be divided into 3 groups: demographic and medical research, management and economic research, and sociological research. Demographic studies have linked risk attitudes to various measures of longevity, well-being, and life expectancy(Filippin, A., & Crosetto, P. 2016). In such studies, scientists mainly pay attention to of macroindicators . For example, the level of alcohol and cigarette use, the quality of health care in the country, and how these indicators can affect a person's risky behavior. At the same time, economic research focuses on how risk attitudes fit into various decision-making theories. In such studies, researchers pay attention to various micro-indicators, such as stress levels, decision-making situations, awareness of other participants ' strategies, etc. Economic research focuses on how different circumstances can influence decision-making and subjective perceptions of risk (Schubert, R., 2006). Sociological research focuses on how such social aspects as education, capital status, income level, etc. can influence the choice of a life strategy in favor of a more or less risky one. Such works are also characterized by the use of micro-sociological explanations. It is important to note that many sociological studies on risk attitudes indicate that an important aspect of risk perception is the established systems of social relations and especially the formats of gender roles (Ronay, R., & Kim, D. Y. 2006). Research on the relationship between gender and risk-taking somehow falls into one of the 3 groups described. Nevertheless,gender studies in recent years have shown that both micro and macro indicators significantly influence the formation of gender roles and gender behavior(Dohmen, T. et. al., 2011). Thus, when using a micro or macro approach to determining the impact of the gender gap on risk perception, we will always lose a significant part of the factors that influence risk perception. The aim of this paper is to investigate how to take into account the results of micro and macro explanations of the gender risk gap based on data from the 6th wave of the Worlds Values Survey and various country-level indicators from the United Nations Population Division and World Bank databases. The novelty of this work lies in the fact that if we use the modern approach of gender researchers, who talk about a multi-level influence on the formation of attitudes to risk. We can apply this approach to studying the impact of the gender gap on risk attitudes and take into account the impact of both individual-level data and country-level predictors. This approach allows us tointerpret more fully and correctly the mechanism of the impact of gender gaps on attitudes to risk.

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