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Address: Room 408, 16 Potapovskiy Pereulok, Moscow
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ORCID: 0000-0002-7493-8937
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Scopus AuthorID: 6701611241
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I. Froumin
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Martin Carnoy

  • Martin Carnoy has been at HSE University since 2011.

Education and Degrees

  • 1964

    University of Chicago
    Thesis Title: The Cost and Return to Schooling in Mexico

  • 1961
  • 1961

    University of Chicago

  • 1960
  • 1960

    California Institute of Technology

Academic Expeirence

2006-present  Vida Jacks Professor of Education, Stanford University
1977-2005 Professor of Education and Economics, Stanford University
1971-77 Associate Professor of Education and Economics, Stanford University
1968-71 Assistant Professor of Education and Economics, Stanford University
1964-68 Research Associate in Economics, Foreign Policy Division, The Brookings Institution, Washington, D.C.

Research Interests

  • Applied Econometrics
  • Economics of Education
  • International Comparative Education





  • Do Countries Paying Teachers Higher Relative Salaries Have Higher Student Mathematics Achievement? (lead author) Amsterdam and East Lansing, MI, TEDS-M, IEA, 2009.
  • Vouchers and Public School Performance. Economic Policy Institute, 2007.
  • Estimating Causal Effects Using Experimental and Observational Designs: A Think Tank White Paper (with Barbara Schneider (Chair), Jeremy Kilpatrick, William Schmidt, and Richard Shavelson). Washington, D.C.: American Educational Research Association. 2007.
  • Cuba’s Academic Advantage (with Amber Gove and Jeffery Marshall). Stanford Press, 2007. Portuguese edition, 2009; Spanish edition, 2010.
  • The Charter School Dust-Up (with Rebecca Jacobson, Lawrence Mishel, and Richard Rothstein), Teachers College Press and the Economic Policy Institute, 2005
  • Las Lecciones de la Reforma Educativa en el Cono Sur Latinoamericano (with Gustavo Cosse, Cristian Cox, and Enrique Martinez), 2004.
  • Reviews of National Policies for Education: Chile (editor and contributor). Paris: OECD, 2003.
  • The New Accountability: High Schools and High Stakes Tests (with Richard Elmore and Leslie Siskin, eds.). New York: Routledge, 2003.
  • Whitewashing Race (with Michael Brown and others). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2003.
  • All Else Equal: Are Private and Public Schools Different? (with Luis Benveniste and Richard Rothstein). New York: Routledge, 2002.
  • Sustaining the New Economy: Work, Family, and Community in the Information Age, published by Harvard University Press and Russell Sage, 2001 (translated into Spanish, French, Korean, and Polish).
  • Globalization and Educational Reform: What Planners Need to Know. Paris: International Institute of Educational Planning, 2000.
  • Can Public Schools Learn from Private Schools (with Richard Rothstein and Luis Benveniste), Economic Policy Institute, 1999.
  • Como anda a reforma da educacao na America Latina? (co-editor), Fundacao Getulio Vargas, 1997.
  • International Encyclopedia of the Economics of Education (editor), Pergamon, 1995.
  • Fathers of a Certain Age (with David Carnoy), Faber and Faber, 1995
  • Faded Dreams: The Politics and Economics of Race in America, Cambridge University Press, 1994.
  • The Case for Basic Education, UNICEF, 1993.
  • The New Global Economy in the Information Age (with Manuel Castells, Stephen Cohen, Fernando-Henrique Cardoso). Pennsylvania State University Press, 1993.
  • Decentralization and School Improvement (co-editor with Jane Hannaway), Jossey-Bass, 1993.
  • Education and Social Transformation in the Third World (with Joel Samoff), 1989.
  • Economia Politica del Financiamento Educativo (with Henry Levin, Reginald Nugent, Suleman Sumra, Carlos Torres, and Jeff Unsicker) Mexico, D.F.: Ediciones Gernika, 1986.
  • Schooling and Work in a Democratic State (with Henry Levin). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1985 (also available in Spanish, Portuguese, and Japanese).
  • The State and Political Theory. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1984 (also available in Portuguese, Greek, Japanese).
  • Educacao, Economia e Estado. Sao Paulo, Brazil: Cortez. A New Social Contract (with Derek Shearer and Russell Rumberger). Harper and Row, 1983.
  • Economic Democracy (with Derek Shearer), Sharpe, 1980.
  • Cuba: Cambio Economica y Reforma Educativa, 1955-1978 (with Jorge Werthein. Mexico, D.F.: Editorial Nueva Imagen, 1980 (also available in Portuguese).
  • Education, Work, and Employment-II (with Henry Levin and Kenneth King). Paris: International Institute for Educational Planning, 1980 (also available in French).
  • Can Educational Policy Equalize Income Distribution in Latin America? (with Jose Lobo, Alejandro Toledo, and Jacques Velloso). Westmead, England: Saxon House with International Labour Office, 1979.
  • Education and Employment: A Critical Appraisal. Paris:International Institute for Educational Planning, 1977 (also available in French and Portuguese).
  • The Limits of Educational Reform (with Henry Levin). New York:David McKay, 1976.
  • Education as Cultural Imperialism. New York: David McKay, 1974.
  • Cost-Benefit Analysis in Education: A Case Study of Kenya (withHans Thias). Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Press for the World Bank, 1972.
  • Industrialization in a Latin American Common Market. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution, 1972 (also available in Spanish).
  • Latin American Economic Integration and U.S. Policy (with Joseph Grunwald and Miguel Wionczek). Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution, 1972 (also available in Spanish).
  • The Economics of Schooling and International Development. Cuernavaca, Mexico: Centro Intercultural de Documentacion, Cuaderno No. 63, 1971.
  • Latin American Trade Patterns (with Donald Baerresen and Joseph Grunwald). Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution, 1965.




  • A Social Agenda for Democracy and Growth for the Next Twenty Years. (principal author). Washington, DC: Global Center for Democracy and Growth, 2009.
  • Les coûts et le financement de l’éducation supérieure au Maroc (with N. Laroque and M. Tahraoui). Washington, D.C.: World Bank (report), 2004.
  • La reforma educativa en America Latina (with Claudio de Moura Castro). Inter-American Development Bank, 1998.
  • What is Happening to the U.S. Labor Market? (with Manuel Castells and Chris Benner). New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1997.
  • Sustainable Flexibility (with Manuel Castells). OECD, 1997.
  • Impact of structural adjustment on the employment and training of teachers. International Labour Organization, 1996 (JMEP/1996/II).
  • Universities, Economic Development, and Innovation Systems, World Bank, 1993.
  • Education Change and Structural Adjustment: A Case Study of Costa Rica (with Carlos Torres), UNESCO, 1993.
  • The Changing Economic Position of Latinos in the U.S. Labor Market Since 1939 (with Raul Hinojosa and Hugh Daley). New York: Hunter College, Inter-university Program, Puerto Rican Center, 1990.
  • Education and Development (with others), World Bank Discussion Paper, No. 95 (1990).
  • Economic Modernization and Technology Transfer in the People's Republic of China (with Patrizio Bianchi and Manuel Castells), Center for Educational Research at Stanford, June, 1988.
  • Computers and Education: Which Role for International Research? A Report on the Stanford/Unesco Symposium 10-14 March, 1986, Stanford University School of Education, prepared with Liza Loop. Paris: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, August 1986. (Also available in Spanish and French.)
  • Higher Education and Graduate Employment in India: A Summary of Three Case Studies. Paris: International Institute of Educational Planning, 1986.
  • Estudio de la educacion secundaria y superior en El Salvador, las tendencias en los requerimientos de mano de obra con educacion secundaria y superior, y las implicaciones para la politica de EDUCREDITO. Palo Alto, CA: Center for Economic Studies, 1977.
  • The Payoff to "Better" Schooling: A Case Study of Tunisian Secondary Schools (with Richard Sack and Hans Thias). Washington, D.C.: The World Bank, 1977.
  • Education and Public Sector Employment (with Robert Girling and Russell Rumberger. Palo Alto, CA: Center for Economic Studies, 1976.
  • Theories of Labor Markets and Income Distribution (with Michael Carter). Mons, Belgium: Centre de Recherches Interdisciplinaires de Prospective Economique, Educative, et Sociale, Universite de l'Etat a Mons, 1975. Also in French, published by Universite de Dijon, Dijon, France, 1974.
  • Theories of Labor Markets and Worker Productivity (with Michael Carter). Palo Alto, CA: Center for Economic Studies, 1974.


Basic General

Dispelling some myths about school

IOE Welcomes World-distinguished Academics to Exchange Perspectives on Global Education Policy

On May 20, Days of the International Academy of Education kicked off at the Higher School of Economics in Moscow. Experts from all over the world who focus on global education policy trends will meet up across a number of HSE venues to engage in vibrant, multi-format networking, including lectures, workshops, Q&A sessions, etc. They will share their experience with Russian researchers, instructors and policymakers over the course of three days.

International Education Experts Gather in Moscow

On May 20, the Days of the International Academy of Education commenced at the Higher School of Economics in Moscow. Experts from all over the world engaged in identifying global education policy trends will hold a series of meetings, master classes, seminars and open lectures. They will share their experience with Russian researchers, instructors and education policy makers over the course of three days.

IOE Expert Tatiana Khavenson Recognized by Scopus Awards 2018

Tatiana Khavenson, a research fellow at the IOE International Laboratory for Education Policy Analysis, has been acknowledged by Scopus Awards Russia 2018 as the most frequently cited scholar in ‘Education.’

Exploring Higher Education Landscapes in Federal Nations

An international research team led by IOE has completed a large-scale study that analyzes how higher education systems have been evolving in federal countries. The resulting volume has recently come off the press at SAGE.

‘The Biggest Priority in Education Is World Class Professional Development Programmes’

The report entitled ‘Twelve Solutions for New Education’, prepared by the Higher School of Economics and the Centre for Strategic Development, was presented at the XIX April International Academic Conference. Professors Martin Carnoy and Tomasso Agasisti, international experts on education and conference guests, have shared their views on the issues and initiatives highlighted in the report.

Dr. Martin Carnoy Recognized by HSE Academic Honors Award

The HSE Academic Honors Award acknowledges contribution to high-impact scholarship and the advancement of multifaceted cooperation in global science and education.

Martin Carnoy and Christian Welzel Awarded HSE Medal

The Contribution to Science and Education Award, established by the HSE, recognises outstanding contributions to academic development and international academic cooperation.

How International Tests Fail to Inform Policy: the Mystery of the Australian Case

Education experts Tatiana Khavenson and Martin Carnoy of IOE and Leila Morsy of the University of New South Wales (Australia) have analyzed Australia’s PISA and TIMSS data for a decade-and-a-half period through 2015 to test the validity of the most popular explanations that Australian education officials have voiced in recent years for the students’ steadily shrinking performance on PISA tests. The study results have been published in Elsevier’s International Journal of Educational Development.

IOE Academics Recognized for High-impact Research

A cross-country benchmarking of student achievement gains in vocational versus general secondary tracks, which was published by IOE experts Julia Kuzmina and Martin Carnoy in 2016, has received a 2017 Highly Commended Award from Emerald’s International Journal of Manpower.

IOE Researchers Speak at 2017 CIES Conference in Atlanta

On March 5–9, 2017, the U.S. city of Atlanta, Georgia hosted the 2017 Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society (CIES). Seeking the most diverse engagement in the venue’s multiple opportunities for expertise exchange, debate, and academic networking, a representative team of experts with IOE’s leading research & advisory centres took part in this year’s CIES event. Presentations were given by Isak Froumin, Oleg Leshukov, Elena Minina, Pavel Sorokin, Zumrad Kataeva, Martin Carnoy, Tatiana Khavenson, and Andrey Zakharov.

It’s More Useful to Compare Students from Different Regions of a Single Country than from Different Countries

Professor Martin Carnoy of Stanford University and visiting professor at the Higher School of Economics, and Tatiana Khavenson, Research Fellow at the HSE Institute of Education, were among the authors of the report ‘An Analysis of the Impact of Education Policies on Student Achievement in the United States’, which was recently presented in Washington, DC. The key provisions of this report are of use when it comes to analyzing the situation in Russian education.

Postgraduates at the Institute of Education Become Part of the International Research Community

This year government funding is available for twenty places (4 times more than usual) on the Education and Pedagogical Sciences course at the HSE Postgraduate Institute of Education. Entry exams are in September but 15th May is the deadline for sending in a portfolio to increase your chances of getting a place. Here is a brief description of the course.

Turbulence Is a Time for Unexpected Solutions in Education

The state is getting rid of underperforming universities, backing large universities, and online courses are vying for market space. These and other trends were the subject for discussion on April 7 by participants in the plenary discussion 'Paths of the Development of the Professional and Higher Education in the Conditions of Economic Turbulence' at the XVI April International Research Conference on Economic and Social Development.

Turbulence Is a Time for Unexpected Solutions in Education

The state is getting rid of underperforming universities, backing large universities, and online courses are vying for market space. These and other trends were the subject for discussion on April 7 by participants in the plenary discussion 'Paths of the Development of the Professional and Higher Education in the Conditions of Economic Turbulence' at the XVI April International Research Conference on Economic and Social Development.

High Demand for Education in BRIC Countries is Built on a Lack of Respect for Trades

A HSE Institute of Education seminar on September 16, saw the launch of the Russian-language book Mass higher education – BRIC triumph?  by HSE publishing house (the English original, University Expansion in a Changing Global Economy, Triumph of the BRICs? was published last year by Stanford University Press). Attendees discussed development trends in higher education.

33 million 

is how many first-years will be admitted to Chinese universities in 2020. These and other interesting facts are presented in the book University Expansion in a Changing Global Economy. Triumph of the BRICs?,which has been released in Russian by the publishing house of the Higher School of Economics. The English version of the book was published a year ago by Stanford University’s publishing house.

What Affects Engineering Education Quality in Emerging Economies?

‘Factors Affecting the Quality of Engineering Education in the Four Largest Emerging Economies’, an article co-authored by Isak Froumin,Martin Carnoy and Prashant Loyalka, was published in the academic journal Higher Education. The article focuses on assessing the evolving capacity of higher education systems in BRIC countries with respect to producing qualified engineering graduates.

HSE Visiting Professor Listed among Most Influential Education Scholars

Martin Carnoy, Academic Supervisor of the HSE International Laboratory for Educational Policy Research and the Vida Jacks Professor of Education at Stanford University, has been ranked fourteenth among North America’s most influential education scholars. He was recognized for his work analysing the results of an international education assessment.

HSE Professor becomes a Member of the International Academy of Education

Andrey Podolsky, HSE Professor of the Graduate School of Education, has become the first scientist in Eastern Europe to be inducted as a member of the International Academy of Education.  

How to Create a Proper Macroeconomic Picture of the World

Boris Kuznetsov, Professor at the HSE Subdepartment of Economic Analysis of Organizations and Markets has recently returned from the US where he read a series of lectures on Russian economics to students at Stanford University. The HSE news portal asked him to talk about his impressions after the trip and about what prospects there are for working together in the future with our American colleagues.

Plenty of Engineers – Plenty of Innovations?

On September 18th 2012, the HSE Institute for Educational Studies held the latest in its series of regular seminars. Martin Carnoy, Stanford University Professor and Academic Supervisor of the International Laboratory for Education Policy Analysis, spoke about ‘BRIC Triumph: Unprecedented Boom of Higher Education’.

HSE IAC: a Meeting in a New Context

On May 30th the third annual meeting of the Higher School of Economics International Advisory Committee (IAC) opened at the HSE.

The Study Has Revealed Slacker Lecturers

On September 13th 2011 a seminar by the HSE Institute for Educational Studies took place. Martin Carnoy, Professor at the University of Stanford and Academic Supervisor at the HSE International Laboratory for Educational Policy Research, spoke on ‘The Low Achievement Trap: Comparing Schools in Botswana and South Africa’.