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Carol Scott Leonard

  • Carol Scott Leonard has been at HSE University since 2011.

Education and Degrees

  • 1976

    Indiana University Bloomington

  • 1968

    University of Iceland

Awards and Accomplishments

Courses (2017/2018)

Editorial board membership

2012: Member of the Editorial Council, Форсайт (Foresight and STI Governance).


  • 2014
    The 46th Annual Convention of ASEEES (San Antonio). Presentation: Governance and Regional Resilience in Russia: A Case Study of the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug
  • The 46th Annual Convention of ASEEES (San Antonio). Presentation: Governance and Regional Resilience in Russia: A Case Study of the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug
  • The 46th Annual Convention of ASEEES (San Antonio). Presentation: Governance and Regional Resilience in Russia: A Case Study of the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug
  • The 46th Annual Convention of ASEEES (San Antonio). Presentation: Governance and Regional Resilience in Russia: A Case Study of the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug
  • The 46th Annual Convention of ASEEES (San Antonio). Presentation: Governance and Regional Resilience in Russia: A Case Study of the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug
  • 2013
    The 45th ASEEES Annual Convention (Boston) 2013 (Бостон). Presentation: Serfdom and Social Capital: The Long Run




Agrarian Reform in Russia: The Road from Serfdom (2011) Cambridge University Press

Privatization in the Russian Transition (forthcoming 2012) Routledge.

The Microeconomics of Post-Communist Change in Central and Eastern Europe (Edited volume; intro). London: Palgrave (2002).

Hours of Work and Means of Payment in Pre-Industrial Europe, Proceedings  of the Eleventh International Economic History Congress in Milan, September, 1994 (co-ed. with Boris Mironov), (Universita Bocconi).

Agrarian Organization during Industrialization: Europe, Russia and America in the Nineteenth Century, by JAI Press Inc. as 2 supplementary volume Research in Economic History, co‑edited with G. Grantham (1989)   

Reform and Regicide: The Reign of Peter III of Russia (Indiana University Press, 1993) (Choice Outstanding Academic Book award).


“Russia in WTO” (11 January 2012), ModernRussia.com.

“Skolkovo’s innovative potential” (2011), ModernRussia.com. 

 “Agricultural Productivity in Russia, 1861-1911: From Inertia to Ferment” (2011) in  Agricultural production and productivity in Europe, edited by Matts Olson and Patrick Svennson (Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols).

“Introduction”, Cluster of four articles on Russian Rural History, in honour of Daniel Field, Russian Review Winter 2010.

(with Brigitte Granville) (2010) “Do Informal Institutions Matter for Technological Change in Russia? The Impact of Communist Norms and Conventions, 1998-2004,” World Development,vol. 38, 2:155-169.. 

(with Jonas Ljungberg)(2010). “Population and  living standards, 1870–1914,” Economic History of Modern Europe, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, vol 2, ch. 5.

(with Balázs Égert) (2008). “Dutch Disease Scare in Kazakhstan: Is it Real?” Open Economies Review,19, No. 2: 147-65,

(with Leonid Borodkin and Brigitte Granville) (2008). “The Rural/Urban Wage Gap in Russia, 1884-1910” European Review of Economic History, 12, No 1: 67-95.

(with Balázs Égert) (2007). “The Dutch Disease in Kazakhstan: An Empirical Investigation,” in The Impact of the Oilboom in the Caspian Basin, eds R. Pomfret et al (Routledge).

­­­­­­­­­(2007): "WTO Accession, Institutions and Russian Agriculture," World Journal of Management & Economics, 42-45.

 “The WTO, Institutions and Russian Agriculture (2007),” Proceedings of the Conference “Development of the International Trading System: Prospects for Emerging Markets”, St Petersburg State University and the Centre for Trade Policy and Law, Ottawa, Canada, pp. 190-206.

(with B. Granville) (2004). “The Digital Divide and Local Learning: The Case of Pharmaceuticals” in The Internet Revolution, Vol.  2  (Munich, Germany, for the Tokyo Club) (2004).

(with I. M. Garskova) (2003). “A Virtual Community in Transition: A Russian Social Science and Humanities Network,” (2003) Economics of Innovation and New Technology Special Issue, Collaboration Technologies and the Economics of Collaborative Research,Guest-Edited by Paul A. David and W. Edward Steinmueller, 12: 1, 61-76.

Leonard, C.S. (2003). “The Behavior of Russia’s Rural Producers in response to Agrarian Reforms, 1861-2000”, in David, P. A. and M. E. Thomas The Economic Future in historical Perspective. Oxford and New York, Oxford University Press for the British Academy.

Granville, B. and C. S. Leonard (2002). “The Pharmaceutical Sector: The Generics Development Trajectory”. The Economics of Essential Medicines. B. Granville. Oxford and London, Washington, D.C., Royal Institute of International Affairs; St Antony's College, U Oxford and Royal Institute of International Affairs, distributed by the Brookings Institution:137-60.

(with B. Granville) (2002). “Pharmaceuticals and Digital Deepening: How Discouraging is the Digital Divide for Development”,  pp. 117-158.

“Agriculture during the Russian Transition” (2001) in B. Granville and P. Oppenheimer, eds The Economic Transition in Russia (London: Macmillan).

(with B. Granville and J. Manning) “The Internet and Economic performance, Potential for Developing Countries” (2001) in H. C. Sherman, ed., The Impact of the Internet Revolution on International Economic Relations and Society (Munich, Germany: Institute für Wirtschaftsforschung for the Tokyo Club,  pp. 49-80).

“Rational Resistance to Land Privatization: The Response of Rural Producers to Agrarian Reforms in Pre- and Post-Soviet Russia,” Post-Soviet Geography and Economics, 41 (December 2000), pp. 605-620.

“Tax and Subsidy Policy, Agriculture and Transition” (2000), in J. Szyrmer and K. Sultan, eds., Ukraine Through Transition: Challenges and Strategies (HIID: Kyiv).

(with J. Szyrmer) “Agrarian Transition in the Former Soviet Union,” in Bulletin de la Societe Geographique de Liege (1997), pp. 31-36.

(with L. Borodkin) "Labor Turnover and Unemployment: Sticky Wages During the Industrialization of Russia, 1880-1913," in Hours of Work and Means of Payment, pp. 93-106.

"The Russian Land Commune and the Mobility of Labor during Industrialization, 1885-1913,"  Economics in a Changing World, Vol. 1. System Transformation: Eastern and Western Assessments (New York: St. Martin's Press, Inc., in association with the International Economic Association, 1994). pp. 168-178.

“Transition Paths,” in Microeconomics of Transition (2002), C.S. Leonard, ed.

“Rational Resistance to Land Privatisation in Russia: Modelling the Behaviour of Rural Producers, 1861-2000” (Forthcoming), in Eds. P. David, M. Thomas and P. Solar, Economic Challenges in the 21st Century, Festschrift in honour of Professor Charles Feinstein, University of Oxford.

“Agriculture During the Russian Transition” (2000) in B. Granville and P. Oppenheimer, eds. The Economic Transition in Russia (London: Macmillan).

"The Rural-Urban Wage Gap during Russian Industrialization," with Leonid Borodkin, Fantastika i Nauka: Gipotesy, Prognozy (Moscow: "Znanie," 1992).                       

Working Papers and Conference Papers

“Private Ownership of Land in Russia” конференция "Экономические реформы в России XIX-XX вв.", 24-25 ноября, Plenary Session, Moscow State University, 2011

“Science and Technology in Transition Russia” for conference, “The Contemporary Global Economy: Trends and Prospects”, organized by the Department of the World Economy, Faculty of Economics, St Petersburg University, 25 April 2008.

(with Balasz Egert) (2007), “Dutch Disease Scare in Kazakhstan: Is it real?” CESifo GmbH, CESifo Working Paper Series: CESifo Working Paper No. 1961.

(with Balázs Égert) (2007), “Dutch Disease Scare in Kazakhstan: Is it real?” The William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan, Working Paper No 866.

(with Balázs Égert) (2007), “Dutch Disease Scare in Kazakhstan: Is it real?” Bofit Discussion Paper No 9/2007.

(with Brigitte Granville) (2006), “Do Institutions Matter for Technological Change: The Case of Russia’s 89 Regions”, UCL SSEES, Working paper No 70.

Conference Papers

(with Paul Domjan) “The Challenge of Science and Technology Policy in Kazakhstan,” CEELBAS workshop on Science and Technology Policy in the CIS, University of Oxford, 5 December 2008

“The Serf Emancipation and Russia’s Economic Institutions, 1861-1913,” AAASS, Philadelphia, PA, US, 13 November 2008

“The Productivity of Agriculture in Russia in the late Tsarist Era,” Final Conference of the Marie Curie Research Training Network - Krakow 26/28 September 2008

“The Economics of Serfdom: A Gendered Perspective,” AAASS, November, 2008, Philadelphia

“The WTO, Institutions and Russian Agriculture,” paper presented 1-2 March 2007, “Development of the International Trading System: Prospects for Emerging Markets”, St Petersburg State University, Faculty of Economics, Centre for Trade Policy and Law, Ottawa, Canada.

“The Wage Gap in Russian History, 1885-1910” at the Eastern Economics Association meetings, New York, 25 February 2007.

“Rural Entrepreneurship and the State: Contemporary Russia in Historical Light,” paper presented at plenary session, School of Management, St Petersburg University, 8 December 2006, “The Firm, Society and the State in late 19th and early 20th Century Russia”.

“Institutions and Technological Change in Russia’s Regions, 1996-2004”, at the AAASS in Washington, US (16 November 2006),

“Investment in Russia’s Regions”, presented at the World Economic Forum, Vilnius, 8 March 2006.

(with Leonid Borodkin and Brigitte Granville), “The Rural Urban Wage Gap in the Industrialization of Russia, 1883-1913 (17 June 2006), Queen Mary, University of London, Business History Conference.

“The Institutionalization of Property Rights in Russia’s Regions,” paper presented at University College in London, SSEES, 22 February 2005.

“Property Right and Growth in Putin’s Russia,” paper presented at the University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh PA USA, 3 December 2004.

Agriculture in the Russian Transition: Reform and Retrenchment (4 Dec 2002) CEPR/ESRC Transition Economics Workshop, London

(with Brigitte Granville), “The Digital Divide and Local Learning”, paper presented at the Conference of the Tokyo Club, 21 January 2002.

“The Costs of Re-Centralisation of Russian Public Sector Finance”, Proceedings of the St Petersburg Workshops, sponsored by CIDR, on Public Sector Economics, 1999-2000.


Teaching Experience

Graduate level courses:

“Skolkovo: Designing an Innovative Center” (ANKh, for Stanford-Russia program in Moscow, RF)

Russian Privatization (ANKh), program in Change Management

Russia’s Regional Devlopment (ANKh), program in Change Management

Russian Business (SAID Centre, University of Oxford, 2009)

Economics of Emerging Markets (Graduate School of Management and Economics, St Petersburg, Russian Federation)

Science and Technology in Transition (University of Oxford, 2007 -2011)

Research Methods for Doctoral Students (GSOM)

Economics of Transition (University of Oxford, 1997-2011)

Research Methods in the Social Sciences, (University of Oxford, 2007-2011)

Regions in Transition (University of Oxford, 1997-2011)

Social and Economic History, 20th Century Russia, Contemporary Experience in a Historical Perspective (University of Oxford, 1997-2011)


Undergraduate courses:

Social Science Statistics (University of Oxford, 2004-2008)

Macroeconomics (SUNY, 1990-1993)

Geography of Transition (CEE and CIS), (University of Oxford, 1998-)

Russian history (9th century -) (SUNY, 1974-1993)

Ancient history, Early Modern History, Research seminars in Russian history, Russian culture, Macro and Micro-economics (SUNY 1974-1993)

Professional Affiliations

Presidential Academy of the National Economy, Visiting Professor2011-2012
University of Oxford, Oxford, England, HEFCE post1997-2011
University of Oxford, Regional Studies of Post-Communist States, Interdisciplinary Area Studies2002-2011
University of Oxford, Pro-Junior Proctor2009-2010
St Petersburg School of Management, Professor2009-2011
Eurasian National University, Astana, Kazakhstan
Economics Professor, Graduate program, Economics of Science and Technology
Economics Faculty University of Oxford1997-2002
St Antony’s College, Emeritus Fellow2011-
St Antony’s College, Financial Delegate, Management Committee2008-2011
All Souls College, Oxford, England, Visiting Fellow1996-1997
Economic Advisor, Deputy Minister of Finance for US Treasury (Kazakhstan)1995-1996
National Training Foundation of the Russian Federation, Project Director (for the World Bank project), Assessing Training Needs for Ministry of Finance officials1996 
U.S. Treasury, Economic Advisor to Deputy Minister, Ministry of Finance, Russian Federation1993-1996
Lomonossov State University, Visiting Professor1996

Advisory and administrative appointments (recent)

Center for Russian Studies, Presidential Academy of the National Economy, Moscow, RF 2011- Co-Academic Director
Management Executive Committee, St Antony’s College 2008- Financial Delegate
Eurasian National University  2007- Graduate Studies Advisor
Centre of Globalization Research, Queen Mary Fellow 2005- Public Policy, sectoral policy
    Knowledge-based Economy
Royal Institute of International Affairs Associate 1999-2004 Transition Economies
CAIS Institute, Moscow, International Relations Institute 1999-2001 Sectoral Policy, Transition Economy

Consulting appointments

NRU-Higher School of Economics 2011-2012 Basic Research Program
Oxford Analytica 2006- Economy of Kazakhstan
Eurasian National University, Economics Department, Astana, Kazakhstan 2007- Economics of Science and Technology
  2008 Innovation and Management
St Petersburg School of Management    
Doctoral program 2009, 2010 Research Methods
Masters program 2009, 2010 Emerging Markets
National Bank of Kazakhstan 2005- Confidential Report, Technology and MacroeconomicPolicy, Lead Author

Administrative Activities

CEELBAS Workshop organizer, "Privatization in Russia: Outcomes and Decisions" 2010
University of Oxford, Pro-Proctor 2009-2010
St Antony’s College, Financial Delegate, Management Committee 2008-2012
REES, Director for Methodology 2008-2010
REES, Management Committee  
CEELBAS workshop organizer, "Comparison of Technology Policy in the CIS and CEE" 2008
SIAS Clarendon Fund Scholarship Committee 2007-2008
Head of Examination Committee 2002, 2009
SIAS Representatives on University Software Licensing Committee 2006-
College Representative on University IT Committee 1999-2001
IT Fellow 1999-2001
IT and Library Resources Committee 1998-2001
Graduate Studies Director  
M Phil Program, Russian and East European Studies 2000-2001
Graduate Studies Committee 2000-2001
Research and Development Director  
M Phil Program, Russian and East European Studies 2000-2001
University Library Committee, Representative of the M Phil Program, Russian and East European Studies 2000-2001
Conference (co-organiser) "Initial Conditions and Transition" Oxford-Houston Conference, April 19-21, 2001, Houston, Texas US 2001
Conference (organiser) "Energy in the FSU" at St Antony’s College, Oxford (sponsored by BP International) 1998

Previous experience

Budget advisor, U.S. Treasury, to Russian Ministry of Finance 1993-1995
Co-coordinator, Economic History Project with Soviet Academy of Sciences for Univ. California 1989-1991
Coordinator Agrarian History Project for ACLS-Soviet AN SSSR International Research and Exchanges Board 1985‑1989
Conference on Agrarian History, Tallinn, USSR, Co‑organizer with Alan Olmstead 1987
Resident Director SUNY‑Moscow State University, various faculty and  graduate student exchanges 1977‑1984
Founder, Director, Institute of Contemporary  Studies, SUNY at Plattsburgh 1982‑1984

Research and Development Grants

Institutional Development

Conference Grant (CEELBAS) Privatization in Transition 2010
Conference Grant (CEELBAS) Science and Technology in Transition, University of Oxford, REES  2008
Conference Grant (Energy in the FSU) by British Petroleum 1998
Donor support for a pilot project for decentralization of the grain market in Rostov oblast’  
GRANTS: Eurasia Foundation, Know-How Fund, TACIS 1995-1996
DONOR PARTICIPATION: TACIS/EU RIAS, World Bank, Winrock International, Citizens’ Network 1995
USIS   Speakers’ Grants (U.S. Embassy in Moscow) to assist economic history at Moscow State University 1995
John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Grant (Project Director) to create Center for Economic History and Theory (founded May 10, 1994) at Moscow State University 1993-1994
SOROS Foundation 1991
Exxon Foundation (for publication of conference proceedings) 1987
Rockefeller Foundation (for conference in Montreal in 1983) 1983
International Research and Exchanges Board Conference Grant 1983

Research and Retraining

Privatization in Russia, Research Grant 2010-2011
Dutch Disease (National Bank of Kazakhstan) 2007-2008
UNDP Poverty in Transition Countries 1998
National Council for Eurasian and East European Research 1993-1994
National Science Foundation, Economics Program (Career Advancement Award, Research Opportunities for Women) to study economics 1989-1990
International Research and Exchanges Board  (IREX) Developmental Grant to study economics 1988‑1989
National Science Foundation, Economics Program 1985‑1986

Russian Regional Studies Expertise

University of Oxford, HEFCE post, Regional Studies of Post-Communist States (1997-2011)

I taught graduate and undergraduate courses in Russia’s regional development, statistics and Russian economic history. I supervised Masters and D Phil theses on topics including fiscal federalism, and regional political, economic, and social development of Russia.

Russian and East European Graduate Studies Program, Management Committee (1997-2011)

Director for Research Methods (2007-2011)

US Treasury Economic Advisor to the Ministry of Finance, RF (1993-1996)

I advised the Russian government on agricultural budget policy and organized training for Ministry of Finance officials in regional budgeting. I also advised regional governments (Saratov, Rostov) on agricultural support, processing and property rights incentives, issues pertaining to independent farmers, and I obtained grants  for the regional government of Rostov to support training seminars on competition, standards and measure, grain contracts, government’s role in assisting agriculture (see below).

US Treasury Economic Advisor to the Ministry of Finance, Kazakhstan (1995-1996)

National Bank of Kazakhstan, Lead Author for Confidential Report on Macroeconomic Policy and Technology Policy (contract through St Antony’s College, Oxford)

National Training Foundation of the Russian Federation, Project Director (World Bank), Assessing Training Needs for Ministry of Finance officials (1996)

UNDP Poverty in Transition Countries, (co author) (1998)

National Council for Eurasian and East European Research (Russian Agrarian Reform) (1993-1994)

National Science Foundation, Economics Program  (Development of Historical Regional Database on Russia) 1985‑1986


Educational Background

California Institute of Technology Graduate program  1988‑1990 Economics
Indiana UniversityPh. D.1974History
 M. A.1968History
Seminar za strane SlavisteDiploma1968Serbo-Croatian
University of MinnesotaB. A.1966Russian Studies

HSE Student Awarded Russia’s Prize ‘For Loyalty to Science’ for Best Radio Programme

Vera Gribanova, a graduate student in the Master’s Programme 'Governance of Science, Technology and Innovation'  runs a radio programme about great scientific achievements called ‘Scientific Light’ on the radio station ‘Moscow Talks’ (Govorit Moskva). This year her radio show has received the prestigious prize ‘For Loyalty to Science’, which is awarded annually by the Russian Ministry of Education and Science.

Faculty of Urban and Regional Development at the Gaidar Forum 2019

Expert discussion “The Construction of Memory: Generations and Russia’s Past and Present” included researchers from different scientific fields

HSE Recognizes Staff Achievements

At an Academic Council meeting on February 26, four HSE staff members were given awards for their outstanding achievements and contributions to their departments and to the university as a whole.

HSE Keeps International Faculty on Their Toes in Friendly and Competitive Environment

Carol S. Leonard, Leading Research Fellow at the HSE Institute of Regional Studies and Urban Planning and Professor at the Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Public Administration, Department for Spatial Development and Regional Studies has been at the HSE since 2011. She talked to HSE News Service about the things she likes about her job, the cultured and energetic environment at HSE, and about the changes she sees across Russia since her undergraduate days when she first became interested in the country, its language and people.

ASEEES Award for Carol Leonard

Carol Leonard, Head of the HSE Department for Spatial Development and Regional Studies, has received the Association for Slavic, East European, and Eurasian Studies (ASEEES) award.