Methodology: analysis of academic papers and the practical implication of technology cooperation in Russia and abroad; analysis of Russian enterprises financial and non-financial statements; survey of managers of Russian enterprises; survey of CEOs of enterprises in industrial and construction clusters in St.-Petersburg; case study; economic modeling.
Empirical base of research: the data collectedby the survey of managers of industrial enterprises of St.-Petersburg (93 respondents), semi-structured interviews with CEOs of enterprises belonging to clusters; statistic data from Rosstat and foreign statistic agencies, other information collected in the process of research.
Results of research: based on the theoretical investigation of the essence of regional innovation systems, there was highlighted the priority of technological development and technological exchange for the formation of regional innovation systems. The basic prerequisites for technology cooperation between enterprises in the region and within corporations, is the need to follow the technological trajectory and to ensure the competitiveness on the basis of the regional specialization, from the one hand, and sharing competences and the formation of inter-organizational (corporate or regional) intellectual capital, on the other one.
Based on the research of the regional innovation system in St. Petersburg in four areas (innovation projects, product innovation, market innovative products, innovative infrastructure), there were revealed the most technologically advanced industries, and the role of technological cooperation in the development of industries was cleared. Also there were defined the preferable set of forms of technological cooperation favored by innovative enterprises in St. Petersburg. The most interesting for further study forms of technological cooperation include: cluster interactions (including the formation of proto-clusters), technology platforms and outsourcing.
A methodical approach to evaluation of the of technology cooperation effectiveness at the regional and corporate level was developed. The approach is based on the evaluation of the synergies of the joint actions of the participants in new technologies development and implementation, as measured by revenue growth of co-operative companies over independent players in the technology market by establishing competitive prices and reduce costs. Synergistic effect also includes evaluating the risks of technological cooperation.
The study of industrial and construction cluster formations in St. Petersburg (using semi-structured interviews and follow-up) has established the close relationship between knowledge management and intellectual capital and the level of technological development of such entities. Our research has identified five types of network interactions in different ways of organizing knowledge management and technological exchange. It was revealed that the appearance of the need to address complex technological task is to push for the transition of these entities from the amorphous state to a rigid structuring, and even, in extreme cases, to the emergence of quasi-corporate structures.
The influence of technological cooperation in cluster formations on the value of the participating enterprises was evaluated. The calculations showed that for companies with the greatest involvement in cluster formation there was an increase of added value, regardless of the type of cooperative ties.
The study of outsourcing as a form of technology cooperation yielded the following practice-oriented results:
The definition of outsourcing as a specific form of long-term inter-firm cooperation, combining hierarchical and market instruments, in which the outsourcer generates, uses and manages specific assets for the benefit of the customer;
The method of calculating the economic impact of outsourcing, taking into account the associated transformation and transaction costs and additional effects;
The method of calculating the economic impact of outsourcing on the transfer of exploration in the oil and gas industry for outsourcing;
The method of selecting an outsourcer on the criterion of minimizing the risk of non-performance of its obligations;
The method of price calculating for services outsourcer, based on the distribution of economic benefits of outsourcing between outsourcer and customer;
The method of outsourcer selection by customers, using the criterion of maximizing the expected economic effect;
a set of strategies for outsourcer’s market entry.
Level of implementation, recommendations on implementation or outcomes of the implementation of the results: The results obtained in the study, have practical orientation. They are valuable for regional authorities (and have been used for the development of selected parts of the Economic Policy of St. Petersburg and also for monitoring of regional innovation system, commissioned by the Administration of St. Petersburg). They are also valuable for companies engaged in technological cooperation. The methodical approaches developed in the research, were tested on five enterprises cluster formations in St. Petersburg.