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  • Comparative legal approach and its instruments in the research oflegal aspects of BRICS (continuation of research initiated in 2013)

Comparative legal approach and its instruments in the research oflegal aspects of BRICS (continuation of research initiated in 2013)

Priority areas of development: law
2014
The project has been carried out as part of the HSE Program of Fundamental Studies.

The object of the research is formed by legal aspects of the functioning of BRICS and the elements of systems of law of BRICS countries, significant for the interaction within a framework of BRICS. 

The aim of the research is the multidimensional study of legal aspects of functioning of BRICS with the usage of a comparative legal approach and its instruments.

Continuing the works undertaken in 2013 the participants of the project had to resolve the following tasks: the elaboration of methodological approaches and tools for the usage of comparative legal method in case of research of legal aspects of BRICS; the determination of the potential of the international law and national law systems of BRICS states for securing the functioning of BRICS; the uncovering of common and specific traits of the national regulation of homogeneous social relations, indicated in Conjoint declarations of the chiefs of governments and states of BRICS countries; the research of the perspectives of harmonization of law systems for securing the cooperation in the fields indicated in Conjoint declarations of chiefs of governments and states of BRICS countries; the comparative legal analysis of fundamental sources of law on actual problems of cooperation, indicated in Conjoint declarations of chiefs of governments and states of BRICS countries; the analysis of scientific literature on actual problems of cooperation indicated in Conjoint declarations of the chiefs of governments and states of BRICS countries; the preparation of the bibliography for the execution of the studies on legal aspects of BRICS; the preparation and the organization of the scientific seminar devoted to the subject of the research; the development of the collaboration with the colleagues of BRICS countries on the explored subject.

The empirical base of the research project was constituted of the wide range of sources of law, including those not translated earlier into Russian language; scientific literature in Russian, Chinese, Portuguese, French, Spanish and Italian languages; Russian and foreign periodic issues; materials and documents, deposited in the archives of libraries of Saint-Petersburg, Moscow, Tours (France), Cape town, (RSA), Rome and Sassari (Italy); internet resources.

Following conclusions were made as result of the researches:

  • in the field of methodology:

1) Analysis of legal aspects of BRICS presupposes the respect of political interests, common for the creation of the union and specific for each BRICS state, respect of political international situation, influencing the goals and functioning of BRICS and the attention to political, economical and social factors, determining the directions of interaction. The adequate legal support respecting the factors mentioned before will contribute the aim of certainty and stability of BRICS states interaction. The law is an instrument of securing the cooperation; it can provide the formal certitude, secure from different problems and guarantee the precision and the reliability of the interaction;

2) The inclusive interaction of the BRICS countries in the different fields including economics and politics regulated by the law could be successful only due to the careful study and the respect of the peculiarities of the legal culture, legal conscience, of the creation of legal systems, of attitude to different regulators of social relations, inherent to each BRICS country.

  • in the field of theory:

1) The Conjoint declarations of the chiefs of states and governments of BRICS countries adopted as a result of the summits still are the basic forms of the fixation of the reached arrangements in BRICS. Having first of all political significance, at once they have juridical significance. The formulations of their provisions could be of several types: 1) declaring the principles of cooperation and politically significant statements; 2) fixing the directions of the cooperation and having the basic character; 3) foreseeing the exact forms of the cooperation and having the legal, organizational significance. All this indicated provisions presuppose the practical realization in the specific activity and the creation of the secure mechanism of its implementation;

2) The mechanism securing the implementation of the adopted decisions of the chiefs of states and governments of BRICS countries should have a due formalization and sophisticated juridical guaranties. While elaborating the mechanism the utility of two levels of the cooperation should be respected: the legal international and legal national. The first one presupposes the applying of international legal framework, created by the conclusion of multilateral or bilateral international treaties. The second one demands the harmonization of national legal systems of BRICS countries. Simultaneous or consequent application of these both ways is considered to be preferential. But the usage of the harmonization of national legal systems of BRICS countries is sure to be more rational and simple way while the elaboration of international law usually takes much time for reconciliation of participants positions and depends on the will of politicians;

3) The declared adherence of the chiefs of states and governments of BRICS countries to the international law means the necessity of the use of its potential. This is why while conducting the comparative legal researches it is required to check the national norms of BRICS countries on their correspondence to international ones. It is necessary to confront certain norms, legal institutions and phenomena of the international law from one side and norms, legal institutions and phenomena characterizing the legal systems of each state and «involved» in cooperation under the frame of BRICS;

4) The cooperation within the framework of BRICS demands the harmonization of legal systems of BRICS countries. This result could be achieved through the study of the legal systems of BRICS participants in comparative cross-cultural aspect for the revelation of common and specific features in legal regulation of different social relations and activities within BRICS, which became the field of BRICS countries cooperation. In some cases the Roman law could become the criteria of the comparison. It served an important role as the basis of contemporary law of Russia, China, Brazil, RSA. It had significance for the development of Indian Republic law. 

  • in the field of acquirement of empirical knowledge:

1) The second started round of the BRICS summits testifies the strengthening of the significance of the legal aspects within BRICS. This tendency is manifested in Fortaleza declaration: first of all, in the appearance of the organizations, created by BRICS countries (New Development Bank (NDB), Reserve currency pool of BRICS); secondly, in the intention of the chiefs of the states to conclude the agreements on the specific aspects of cooperation (Joint methodologies for social indicators, Memorandum of Understanding on Cooperation among BRICS Export Credit and Guarantees Agencies, Cooperation Agreement on Innovation within the BRICS Interbank Cooperation Mechanism, Agreement on cultural cooperation); thirdly, in the decision to attract national state bodies and settings (national statistical bodies, ministries of finance, economy and trade, culture, agriculture, public health, central banks, bodies responsible for assurance, taxing and custom authorities) in the process of the elaboration of the activities in the field of the cooperation. In this regard special meaning receives the study of the sources of law of the BRICS countries, national practice of the enforcement, which are the important instruments while carrying out the legal comparative analysis.

2) The development of BRICS and its «transformation in the full format mechanism of the short and long term coordination on the vast variety of key problems of worlds economy and politics» requires appropriate legal support, which should be prepared through careful analyze of the potential of the international law and legal systems of the BRICS countries in the context of its content, juridical, legislative technics traditionally used in each country and the traditions of the exercise of the legal norms.

Researchers of this topic published 20 works, among them  six  articles in English language,  one in French language, one in Italian.

The results of the conducted investigations have been presented at the international scientific seminar «The land as the object of the law in Russia and Brazil» (the Law Faculty and the Institution of the comparative legal research – Saint-Petersburg were the organizers). The analysis was presented in 22 reports made by the participants of the project at different scientific conferences in Russia and abroad.

These research results will be applied in further research activities and publications, course subjects teaching at the law faculty, in research scientific work in cooperation with students and by the state functionaries and organs responsible for BRICS cooperation.

Publications:


Makarova I. A. Actual problems of the tax law in BRICS: comparative characteris-tic of tax control in Russia and China, in: Aspetti giuridici del BRICS. Rome : Universita Tor Vergata, 2014. P. 165-173.
Макарова И. А. Особенности преподавания юридической дисциплины «Налоговое право» // В кн.: Формирование знаний, навыков и профессиональных компетенций в образовательном процессе юридических вузов: Материалы всероссийской научно-методической конференции, 14-17 февраля 2013 г., г. Суздаль. Владимир : Атлас, 2013. С. 119-121.
Макарова И. А. Экономическая обоснованность правового регулирования налогов С. 206-225.
Рябинчук П. Г. Правовое регулирование строительной деятельности в странах БРИКС: опыт Индии // В кн.: Сравнительно-правовой подход и его инструменты в исследованиях юридических аспектов БРИКС: Труды Лаборатории сравнительно-правовых исследований / Рук.: Т. А. Алексеева; отв. ред.: Т. А. Алексеева. СПб. : Издательство Санкт-Петербургского политехнического университета, 2014.
Белоколодова Т. И. Некоторые аспекты прекращения трудового договора с медицинскими работниками // В кн.: Медицина и право Т. 4. М. : Издательская группа "ЗАКОН", 2014. С. 53-69.
Volkov A. K. Gas Industry Regulatory Frameworks in BRICS Countries // Pravo. Zhurnal Vysshey shkoly ekonomiki. 2014. No. 3. P. 172-182.
Сравнительно-правовой подход и его инструменты в исследованиях юридических аспектов БРИКС: Труды Лаборатории сравнительно-правовых исследований / Рук.: Т. А. Алексеева; отв. ред.: Т. А. Алексеева. СПб. : Издательство Санкт-Петербургского политехнического университета, 2014.
Ryabinchuk P.G. Tendency of legal regulation of contracts in the construction sphere and BRICS: experience of Russian Federation, in: Aspetti giuridici del BRICS. Rome : Universita Tor Vergata, 2014. P. 121-125.
Лаптева А. М. Секрет производства по законодательству Российской Федерации и Южно-Африканской Республики // Интеллектуальная собственность. Промышленная собственность. 2014. Т. 7. С. 17-24.
Lapteva A. Protection against Unfair Competitionin the Russian Federationand Cooperation within BRICS // Pravo. Zhurnal Vysshey shkoly ekonomiki. 2014. No. 3. P. 183-189.
Лаптева А. М. Понятие и виды субъектов инвестиционной деятельности // Вестник Санкт-Петербургского университета. Серия 14. Право. 2014. № 1. С. 55-62.
Волков А. К. Правовое регулирование отношений газового сектора экономики Бразилии // Вестник Санкт-Петербургского университета. Серия 14. Право. 2014. № 3. С. 36-49.
Кадисская конституция 1812 гогда / Сост.: Т. А. Алексеева. Т. 2: Из истории русско-испанских отношений. М. : ООО "Лингвистика", 2013.
Алексеева Т. А. Модель федеративной республики в Испании:конституционный опыт 1873 г. // Вестник Санкт-Петербургского университета. Серия 14. Право. 2014. № 1. С. 5-17.
Volkov A. K. La régulation juridique des investissements étrangers dans la production du gaz en Russie: perspectives au sein de BRICS, in: Aspetti giuridici del BRICS. Rome : Universita Tor Vergata, 2014. P. 129-137.
Makarova I. A. Comparative Study of BRICS Decisions in Terms of Main Guidelines of International Financial and Economic Architecture Reform // Pravo. Zhurnal Vysshey shkoly ekonomiki. 2014. No. 4. P. 152-160.
Макарова И. А. Образовательные правоотношения: предмет, объект, правовой статус субъектов С. 52-58.
Makarova I. A. Actual problems of the tax law in BRICS: comparative characteristic of tax control in Russia and China, in: Aspetti giuridici del BRICS. Rome : Universita Tor Vergata, 2014. P. 169-177.
Медицина и право Т. 4. М. : Издательская группа "ЗАКОН", 2014.