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Legal aspects of the access to knowledge and information in knowledge society

Priority areas of development: law
2014
The project has been carried out as part of the HSE Program of Fundamental Studies.

Goal of research: the study of information technologies influence upon law, including intellectual property law (in the sphere of individualization means).

Methodology: Across the study the complex approach is implemented. For analysis of the current legislation a method of formal logic is employed.

The general and distinct features of the Russian and foreign legislation development in the period of the knowledge society formation are identified on the basis of comparative method.

Sociological method is used for analyzing of the law enforcement practice, especially judicial one. It permits to discover gaps in law, to correlate normative legal model of regulation with really emerging relations.

Empirical base of research: In process of acquiring new empirical knowledge the volume of legislation in the research spheres is determined. International law, Russian and foreign legal acts, legal practice and legal doctrine in the sphere of information law and copyright law were analyzed. Information base of the project ensure Garant, Consultant Plus information systems, foreign sites in Internet containing national legislation.

Results of research:  On the basis of analysis of wide range of sources fundamental conclusions have been made about influence of information technologies upon law in the sphere of individualization, identification of a personality, and about legal regulation of Big Data consequences.

Recent practice indicates that  ICT creates a number of issues, including ones connected with legal protection of human being. The project presents  recommendations on improving legal regulation of individualization means and identification of person inside in ICT.

The practice demonstrates that current legal regulation of individualization means is not able adequately to ensure ICT development. Progress in identification systems is a necessary condition of elaborating effective system of individualization in ICT. Because of it, the identification means system has to be regulated by law preferably at international level.

Traditional individualization means system is not adequate to individualization of information resources and their components. Difficulties exist in resolving conflicts of rights on various individualization means using at the same information resource.  The balanced system of restrictions of exclusive right  on means of individualization has to be elaborated.

For resolving of using domain names problems is impossible without including domain names into individualization means system to minimize conflicts between owners of different means of individualization and to protect interests of trade marks owners, as well domain names owners.

In ICT users often has no opportunity for checking authenticity of information. For that purpose the legal background for individualization means have to be formed. By that, in the legal mechanism protection of individualization means  has not to dominate.

Personal data protection has become an urgent global issue, and majority of states have approved special legislation. However, specific features using personal data in individualization means (conflict between open nature of individualization means and subject of personal data control; the rise of importance of personal data as identifying information; possibility of using personal data for causing injury to honor and dignity of the subject, etc.) are not taken into account in legal regimes of appropriate individualization means as well in legislation on personal data.

Uncertainty in establishing jurisdiction and applicable law appears to be an obstacle to development of social relations in the sphere of ICT. However, settlement of that issue is impossible without concluding appropriate international agreement, regional agreements and model acts.

Issue of personal identification in Internet is putting in the forefront in many countries. For its resolving national identification systems should be formed, principles of their mutual recognition elaborated, for forming global system of personal identification in Internet.

Big Data development presents more opportunities to person, but requires additional legal protection of personal rights. Data should be recognized as valuable object of civil law. The legal development is directed to protection of personal private life. New legislation must be flexible one, permitting to evaluate benefits and harm from using technologies of Big Data. In the light of constantly increasing role of automated algorithms in decision-making processes affecting personal rights and freedoms, it is necessary, by legal and technical means, to form conditions for maximizing transparency of such decisions.

Level of implementation, recommendations on implementation or outcomes of the implementation of the results. The results of project may be implemented in law-making, teaching  various courses of legal science, for raising professional skills of civil and municipal servants.

 

Publications:


Danilov S., Bogdanovskaya I. J. Computer Related Crime, in: Cyber law in Russia. Alphen aan den Rijn : Wolters Kluwer International Publishing House, 2016. P. 239-257.
Бражник Т. А., Журавлев М. С., Худяева Е. С. Третья международная летняя школа по киберправу // Информационное право. 2014. № 4. С. 18-23.
Терентьева Л. В. Разрешение арбитражными центрами доменных споров по процедуре UDRP // Право. Журнал Высшей школы экономики. 2014. № 4. С. 124-135.
Терещенко Л. К. Разрешения в телекоммуникационной сфере // Право. Журнал Высшей школы экономики. 2014. № 4. С. 112-124.
Bogdanovskaya I. J. Chapter 1. General Background, in: Cyber law in Russia. Alphen aan den Rijn : Wolters Kluwer International Publishing House, 2016. Ch. 1.
Bogdanovskaya I. J. Preface, in: Cyber law in Russia. Alphen aan den Rijn : Wolters Kluwer International Publishing House, 2016. Ch. 1. P. 21-22.
Bogdanovskaya I. J. Chapter 5. Initiatives of E-Government, in: Cyber law in Russia. Alphen aan den Rijn : Wolters Kluwer International Publishing House, 2016. Ch. 5.
Bogdanovskaya I. J. General Introduction, in: Cyber law in Russia. Alphen aan den Rijn : Wolters Kluwer International Publishing House, 2016. Ch. 1. P. 22-24.
Bogdanovskaya I. J. PART VII. COMPUTER RELATED CRIME, in: Cyber law in Russia. Alphen aan den Rijn : Wolters Kluwer International Publishing House, 2016.
Бражник Т. А., Журавлев М. С. Юридические препятствия в реализации субъективного права акционеров на получение по требованию информации о деятельности общества // В кн.: Юридические препятствия в реализации прав и законных интересов: проблемы теории и практики. Красноярск : Юрлитинформ, 2015. С. 509-525.
Bogdanovskaya I. J. PART VI. PRIVACY PROTECTION, in: Cyber law in Russia. Alphen aan den Rijn : Wolters Kluwer International Publishing House, 2016.
Savelyev A. Software-as-a-service legal nature: shifting the existing paradigm of copyright law // Computer Law & Security Review. 2014. Vol. 30(5). No. 10. P. 560-568. doi
Savelyev A. Part I. Regulation of the ICT Market, in: Cyber law in Russia. Alphen aan den Rijn : Wolters Kluwer International Publishing House, 2016.
Savelyev A. PART III. ICT Contracts, in: Cyber law in Russia. Alphen aan den Rijn : Wolters Kluwer International Publishing House, 2016.
Bogdanovskaya I. J., Kalyatin V., Savelyev A., Vishnevskiy A., Danilov S. Cyber law in Russia. Alphen aan den Rijn : Wolters Kluwer International Publishing House, 2016.