Goal of the research: to study the effects of sociocultural and social psychological factors (values, moral norms, religious identity, perceived security, prejudice, etc.) on mutual attitudes of migrants and Russian host population.
Empirical base of the research: 1) data on generational differences in attitudes towards intercultural relations in the North Caucasus (N=963; 2014) 2) data on intercultural relations between migrants and host population in Moscow, (N=1029; 2008-2009), 3) data on acculturation of Russians and Poles in Lithuania (N=308; 2014); 4) data of 16 focus groups and 21 expert interviews held in the North Caucasus and Central Federal district (2013).
Results of the Research:
1. Study 1 was aimed at testing 3 hypotheses of intercultural relations. The results of this study show that perceived security is the main factor of mutual acceptance and adaptation of migrants. The lack of perceived security increases ethnic intolerance and inhibits integration of migrants. Thus, increasing overall security would help to improve relations between host population and migrants. Also, it has been found that orientations to integration and multiculturalism are positively associated with the acceptance of multicultural ideology. Frequency of intercultural contact facilitates mutual acceptance.
2. Study 2 was aimed at studying intergenerational transmission of acculturation attitudes in the republics of North Ossetia and Kabardino-Balkaria. According to the results, “separation”, “assimilation”, and “marginalization” strategies are similar in 3 generations of Russian (ethnic minority) families. Similarities in integration have only been found in adolescents and their parents. In Kabardino-Balkaria, intergenerational similarities in “segregation”, “exclusion” and “melting pot” expectations have been found in titular ethnic group families. In North Ossetia, due to the regional specificity of interethnic relations, such similarities have only been found for multiculturalism.
3 Study 3 was aimed at studying adaptation of migrants and ethnic minorities in Lithuania. The results of these study show that values of Openness to Change and Self-Transcendence play an essential role in acculturation of Russian and Polish adolescents in Lithuania. These values promote orientation to integration.
4. According to the analysis of the results of expert interviews and focus groups, despite the changes in the nature of contemporary migration, the images of migrant have not changed. Most representatives of the host population, as well as migrants, are not ready to communicate in a positive way. Migrants are perceived as a threat for the national culture, physical and economic security. The image of migrants from the North Caucasus is the most negative one.
5. The results of the study on moral aspects of the perception of migrants demonstrate that social order, common identity, group loyalty and conformity are necessary for the improvement of the relations between migrants and the host population. The priority of social order is implemented through the orientation on the homogenization of the environment and federal migration policies clampdown.
Application. The results of the study may be used for: a) the development of social programs for the adaptation of migrants and ethnocultural competency trainings for migrants and different groups of host population; b) teaching courses of ethnopsychology, cross-cultural psychology or ethnosociology at universities.
International partners of the Research:
1. Irina Plotka, Professor, Baltic Psychology and Management University College, Latvia;
2. Julia Häuberer, Professor, University of Hamburg, Germany.