Methodology: statistical and econometric analysis of international surveys data
Empirical base of research: the European Social Survey (5th wave, 2010), World Values Survey (5th wave, 2005-2006), International Social Survey Programme (2003-2005, 2005-2006).
Results of research:
1. The results of the cross-cultural study of people’s pride in their country and its achievements, which was conducted in 36 countries worldwide, confirmed the validity of the distinction between normative and rational national pride introduced in the current research.
The application of multilevel regression models revealed the differences in the predictors of normative and rational pride. Rational pride has been determined by a country’s objective achievements as measured by the GDP per capita or the Human Development Index. The normative pride lacked a relation with a country’s objective achievements.
2. Multilevel regression models help to study the effect of institutional characteristics of countries’ job markets on employees’ organizational commitment,i.e. commitment to their employer. The direction of this effect appeared counterintuitive: in the countries with widespread collective agreements between employers and employees on the issues of employment, salaries, and working conditions, and with stricter employment protection legislation, organizational commitment is lower.
This conclusion is new for commitment studies, and its explanation stems from the fact that collective agreements and legal employment protection by the state make employees less dependent on their employers. The lower dependence, in turn, lowers an employee’s need for seeking particular recognition from the employer by demonstrating attitudes and behavior characteristic for commitment.
3. In the current study, we have described the previously unattended relationships between higher-order values outlined by Schwartz. We demonstrated that in all the European countries the value dimensions Conservation – Openness to change and Self-Enhancement – Self-Transcendence were related inversely. As a result, the value category Openness to change was inversely related to Self-Transcendence and value category Conservation was inversely related to Self-Enhancement, and the corresponding correlations are strong. As to the interrelations between the value categories Conservation and Self-Transcendence and between Openness and Self-Enhancement both of them are straight, the corresponding correlations are mostly positive, but weaker. The exact size of the correlation coefficients between value dimensions and between value categories is strongly determined by a country’s level of economic development and the share of population belonging to the Growth value type.
We interpreted the inverse relations between the value dimensions Conservation – Openness to change and Self-Enhancement – Self-Transcendence as implicated by processes of social exchange controlled by the norm of reciprocity [Homans, 1961; Gouldner, 1960].
4. We have demonstrated that values measured at individual and country levels are significant factors affecting normative beliefs in the admissibility of euthanasia.
This effect persists when controlled for respondents’ social and demographic characteristics as well as country variables indicating a level of socioeconomic development. It worth mentioning that effects of values at the individual level persist when controlled for respondents’ religion and level of religiosity. The conclusion is that in the contemporary world religion has no a monopoly as a source of moral views on the vitally important issues, and that values are the independent source of moral regulation.
The values of autonomy and self-direction increase tolerance towards euthanasia. The opposing values of conformity, tradition, and security, on the contrary, increase intolerance towards euthanasia. These effects are due to the fact that euthanasia is regarded as an act of personal free choice in a critical situation, when this choice leads to the termination of life for a person who made it.
Level of implementation, recommendations on implementation or outcomes of the implementation of the results
The research results have been of help in a lecture course “Multivariate data analysis” taught to the 4th year bachelor’s degree students at the Department of sociology of the NRU HSE, and in supervision of the students working at their graduate theses. The current research have provided information for several public presentations in the Russian mass media.