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Rule following: reasoning, reason, rationality

Priority areas of development: humanitarian
2014
Department: Centre for Fundamental Studies
The project has been carried out as part of the HSE Program of Fundamental Studies.

The subject matter of this research is the problem of rule-following, which consists of the number of nontrivial questions posed by L. Wittgenstein in the last period of his work: how is a rule connected with its application? Is it possible to rationally doubt a rule? What are the criteria for correct rule following? What are the sources and criteria of scientific and non-scientific normativity? 

The goal of the research is to identify heuristic potential of rule-following problem in clarifying the key oppositions of modern epistemology associated with the criticism of interpretationism, platonism, mentalism, skepticism, psychologism, subjectivism, conventionalism, in explication of the manifold of different types of rationality, in critical evaluation of classical and non-classical criteria and norms of rationality.

The research methodology refers to the methods of formal semantics and pragmatics, analytic philosophy, phenomenology, hermeneutics, apparatus of epistemic, deontic, probabilistic, non-fregean logic, game theory, two-dimensional semantics and semantics of possible worlds.

The main theoretical and methodological results of the research are:

  1. to clarify the role of normativity criteria in the demarcation of disciplinary boundaries of logical-mathematical and humanities knowledge; to revise the traditional interpretation of logic as a normative discipline based on the acceptance of constitutive normativity of the theory of logical inference regarding reasoning, and the theory of the search for inference regarding effective reasoning. The analysis of paradoxes and porisms (i.e. unexpected results) showed the significance of practice and experiment in the development of theory and meta-theory of logic. The project of a new methodological approach to psychology based not on the linear-reductive transitions from complex to more simple ontologies but on the connection of different ontologies by means of semantic transitions according to “rhizome” principle was developed.
  2. To evaluate critically the classical criteria and norms of rationality (clarity, distinctness, purposefulness, optimality, efficiency, conformity with the paradigm, cultural tradition, social convention); to specify the historic-philosophical and methodological grounds of different conceptions of rationality (rationality as optimization, limited rationality, communicative rationality). New methodology was proposed to solve some internal problems of Grice’s communicative implicatures theory by changing its main regulative principle from principle of cooperation to principle of rationality. The apparatus of two-dimensional semantics helped to overcome contradictions emerging from non-critical transition of referentialism from logical semantics to the probability theory. The new game-theoretical model of consensus essential for rule-following is proposed in non-non-fregean logic. The thesis that rationality of action cannot be reduced to its causal determination and the need for teleological theory of free rational action were proved. The analysis of methodological and ontological background of quantum model of consciousness was given. The analysis of the non-subjective models of consciousness in contemporary post-structuralism was used for critical analysis of subjectivism recurrence in contemporary models of rationality. The perspectives of pragmatic realism as solving the skeptical paradox of rule-following were shown.
  3. to reconstruct the historic-philosophical and semantical context of such categories as “reasoning”, “mind”, “reason”, “understanding”, “judgment”, “intelligence”, “phronesis”, “rule”, “norm” in order to permit to improve the conceptual apparatus of the analysis of theoretical and practical rationality. Systematic grounds of F. Suarez theory of the possibility of knowledge of individual substances and «scientia de singularibus» of M. Nizolio were specified and proved to have deviated from Aristotelian tradition. The analytic reconstruction of W. Occam’s modal logic proved the incorrectness of convergence of modal sentences sine dicto and modal sentences de re. The constitutive role of the category of “interest” in M. Heidegger teaching of sufficient ground, the category of “difference” in the philosophy of J. Derrida and G. Deleuze, and the category of “phronesis” in contemporary methodology of science was shown. The comparison of different versions of Cartesian cogito in Russian philosophy helped to refute the common prejudice about the “irrational” character of Russian philosophy and to show its real focus on the new rationalism. The analysis of the ideas of Russian sociological school clarified the specific understanding of historical rationality in works of P. Lavrov and submitted arguments in favor of feasibility and scientific character of “subjective method” in social sciences.

The results of the research are presented in 27 articles of the participants of the project included in the collection of papers “Rule following: reasoning, reason, rationality” (eds. E.G. Dragalina-Chernaya, V.V. Dolgirukov, Spb. Aletheia, 2014). The results of the project that were also published or are going to be are: 3 articles in international peer-reviewed journals; 1 chapter in a monograph published by the publishing house of category B of SENSE Ranking of academic publishers; 6 articles in journals from the list of VAC; 2 preprints in English, 1 article in a Russian electronic peer-reviewed journal; 2 articles in collective monographs, 1 article in a collection of scientific papers.

The international conference «Rule-Following: Reasoning, Reason, Rationality» was held on 21-23 October 2014 (Faculty of philosophy, HSE). All the participants of the research project took part in the conference (with foreign scholars from Austria, Germany, France and philosophers from different cities of Russia: Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Ekaterinburg, Kaliningrad and Saratov).

Among Russian and international participants of the research there are: Paul Weingartner (PhD, Professor, Director of Research, University of Salzburg, Instituts für Wissenschaftstheorie am Internationalen Forschungszentrum Salzburg, Austria), Gilles Olivo (PhD, Professor, Department of Philosophy, University of Caen Lower Normandy, France); Ahti-Veikko Pietarinen (PhD, Professor, Director of Research, Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia, Helsinki University, Peirce Research Center, Finland); Xiaofan Amy Li (PhD, Oxford, UK); A.G. Kislov (Head of the Department of Ontology and Epistemology at the Philosophy Department of the Institute of Social and Political Sciences of Ural Federal University); Z.A. Sokuler (Professor of the Department of Ontology and Epistemology of the Philosophy Faculty of Moscow State University); E.N. Lisanyuk (assistant professor of logic of philosophical faculty of St. Petersburg State University). The foreign researchers such as Hessbryuggen Walter 

The methodological and theoretical results of the study are included in the courses of logics, ontology, epistemology, history of philosophy, logic, formal and experimental pragmatics, cultural studies, BA and MA course papers as well as in the Master's and Ph.D. theses.

Publications:


Karpenko I. Question of Consciousness: to Quantum Mechanics for the Answers / Издательский дом НИУ ВШЭ. Series WP "Working Papers of Humanities". 2014. No. 44.
Павлов И. И. Витгенштейнианское следование правилу в неопрагматизме Р. Рорти и его критика Х. Патнэмом // В кн.: Следование правилу: рассуждение, разум, рациональность / Отв. ред.: Е. Г. Драгалина-Черная, В. В. Долгоруков. СПб. : Алетейя, 2014. С. 383-395.
Михайловский А. В. Почему мы интересуемся причинами? О трансцендентальном истоке основания у Хайдеггера. // В кн.: Следование правилу: рассуждение, разум, рациональность / Отв. ред.: Е. Г. Драгалина-Черная, В. В. Долгоруков. СПб. : Алетейя, 2014. С. 216-225.
Михайловский А. В. Почему мы интересуемся причинами? О трансцендентальном истоке основания у Хайдеггера // Вестник Самарской гуманитарной академии. Серия: Философия. Филология. 2014. № 1 (15). С. 52-65.
Макарова И. В. Ф. Суарес: возможно ли «совершенное познание»? // В кн.: Следование правилу: рассуждение, разум, рациональность / Отв. ред.: Е. Г. Драгалина-Черная, В. В. Долгоруков. СПб. : Алетейя, 2014. С. 211-215.
Порус В. Н. Научная рациональность в культурно-историческом контуре // В кн.: Культурно-историческая эпистемология: проблемы и перспективы. К 70-летию Бориса Исаевича Пружинина / Сост.: Н. С. Автономова, Т. Г. Щедрина; науч. ред.: Т. Г. Щедрина. М. : Российская политическая энциклопедия, 2014. С. 193-208.
Горбатов В. В. Проблема «спящей красавицы»: рациональный выбор и пропозициональные установки // В кн.: Следование правилу: рассуждение, разум, рациональность / Отв. ред.: Е. Г. Драгалина-Черная, В. В. Долгоруков. СПб. : Алетейя, 2014. С. 70-81.
Dragalina-Chernaya E. Is Logic Normative for Reasoning?, in: Следование правилу: рассуждение, разум, рациональность / Отв. ред.: Е. Г. Драгалина-Черная, В. В. Долгоруков. СПб. : Алетейя, 2014. P. 10-17.
Копылова А. О. Условия истинности модальных предложений в логике У. Оккама // Известия Уральского федерального университета. Серия 3: Общественные науки. 2014. № 4 (134). С. 143-153.
Порус В. Н. К проблеме методологического плюрализма в психологии // В кн.: Следование правилу: рассуждение, разум, рациональность / Отв. ред.: Е. Г. Драгалина-Черная, В. В. Долгоруков. СПб. : Алетейя, 2014. С. 396-410.
Соколов П. В. Модель идеального языка и конструкция науки о единичном у Марио Низолио // Вестник Российского университета дружбы народов. Серия: Философия. 2015
Углева А. В. Русский позитивизм и историческая рациональность в интерпретации П. Лаврова. Рождение критической мысли // В кн.: Следование правилу: рассуждение, разум, рациональность / Отв. ред.: Е. Г. Драгалина-Черная, В. В. Долгоруков. СПб. : Алетейя, 2014. С. 236-253.
Копылова А. О. Concept as an act of understanding and a composite mental term in W. Ockham`s philosophy // В кн.: Следование правилу: рассуждение, разум, рациональность / Отв. ред.: Е. Г. Драгалина-Черная, В. В. Долгоруков. СПб. : Алетейя, 2014. С. 130-138.
Гаспарян Д. Э. Искусственный интеллект и (пост)структурная семантика // В кн.: Следование правилу: рассуждение, разум, рациональность / Отв. ред.: Е. Г. Драгалина-Черная, В. В. Долгоруков. СПб. : Алетейя, 2014. С. 343-347.
Ищенко Н. И. Категория «разум» в философской антропологии Макса Шелера. // В кн.: Следование правилу: рассуждение, разум, рациональность / Отв. ред.: Е. Г. Драгалина-Черная, В. В. Долгоруков. СПб. : Алетейя, 2014. С. 158-173.
Karpenko I. Question of Consciousness: to Quantum Mechanics for the Answers, in: Следование правилу: рассуждение, разум, рациональность / Отв. ред.: Е. Г. Драгалина-Черная, В. В. Долгоруков. СПб. : Алетейя, 2014. P. 278-287.
Доброхотов А. Л. Амплификация рациональности в философии Серебряного века: казус когито // В кн.: Следование правилу: рассуждение, разум, рациональность / Отв. ред.: Е. Г. Драгалина-Черная, В. В. Долгоруков. СПб. : Алетейя, 2014. С. 134-150.
Долгоруков В. В. По каким правилам играют в языковые игры? // В кн.: Следование правилу: рассуждение, разум, рациональность / Отв. ред.: Е. Г. Драгалина-Черная, В. В. Долгоруков. СПб. : Алетейя, 2014. С. 82-89.
Саттар А. С. Два способа рационализации метафизики как науки в философии Артура Шопенгауэра // В кн.: Следование правилу: рассуждение, разум, рациональность / Отв. ред.: Е. Г. Драгалина-Черная, В. В. Долгоруков. СПб. : Алетейя, 2014. С. 183-196.
Астахов С. С. Методологические проблемы и парадоксы в современных исследованиях метафоры // В кн.: Следование правилу: рассуждение, разум, рациональность / Отв. ред.: Е. Г. Драгалина-Черная, В. В. Долгоруков. СПб. : Алетейя, 2014.
Гаспарян Д. Э. Письмо (в) философии Ж. Деррида // Вестник Российского университета дружбы народов. Серия: Философия. 2014. № 3. С. 62-74.
Доброхотов А. Л. Аксиомы веры и теоремы права: философия власти С.Л. Франка // В кн.: "Самый выдающийся русский философ": философия религии и политики С.Л. Франка. М. : Издательство ПСТГУ, 2014. С. 21-29.
Karpenko I. Question of Consciousness: to Quantum Mechanics for the Answers // Studia Humana. 2014. Vol. 3. No. 3. P. 16-28. doi
Карпенко И. А. Проблема связи квантовой механики и реальности: в поисках решения // Эпистемология и философия науки. 2014. Т. XL. № 2. С. 110-126.
Gasparyan D. Od metafizike k filozofiji razlike: Deleuze in Derrida / Пер. с англ. // Filosofsky Vestnik. 2015. Vol. XXXVI. No. 3. P. 151-167.
Vasyukov V. L. On Metalogical Relativism, in: The Road to Universal Logic. Basel : Birkhauser/Springer, 2015. P. 495-511. doi
Гаспарян Д. Э. Искусственный интеллект и (пост)структурная семантика // Эпистемология и философия науки. 2014. № 3. С. 115-131.