Tendencies: workplaces, employment, unemployment
Solid and timely data allows to make reasonable decisions on labor market: to choose a profession, a place of work and training and educational programs reasonably, it can also significantly increase validity of choice of the labor market mechanisms. Federal Service of State Statistics publishes statistical information on the workplaces movement, various characteristics of employment and unemployment periodically. However, this information, as a rule, doesn't contain any sufficient explanations and comments useful for developers of a state policy or members of labor market.
Workplaces, employment, unemployment in Russia, activities of National Council for professional qualifications are an object of the research.
The research objective was to reveal the main tendencies of workplaces movement in the Russian economy, changes in employment and unemployment on the basis of statistical information by Federal Service of State Statistics, statistics of the international organizations and foreign countries analysis and interpretation. Our main task was to interpret official statistical information in the simplest terms.
Empirical base of the research: data of Federal State Statistics Service, Ministry of Labour and Social Protection of the Russian Federation. Information of the statistical services of the European Union and the countries of Europe is used for the international comparison.
The research is divided into three independent parts (the thematic bulletins) united by the heading "Tendencies: workplaces, employment, unemployment".
1. Bulletin "Unemployment in the Russian Federation"
- Unemployment rate in Russia reached the minimum of 4,8% in August, 2014. It is one of the lowest among the countries of Europe. Low unemployment rate in Russia includes strongly differentiated regional indicators. The unemployed are concentrated in the regions with less developed economy and in the regions with big population. Unemployment rate is higher in regions with low salaries.
- Unemployment rate in Russia is low and less sensitive to economic shocks due to the use of flexible duration of working week, extraordinary holidays, etc.
- The unemployed are a group which needs to be protected: the average duration of unemployment exceeds 7 months (more than a third of the unemployed are in job search for more than 1 year), whereas low benefits are not capable to compensate the lost earnings for the period of job search. Unemployed rarely address to the public employment services during job-searching period. Lack of demand also testifies to the need of development of active employment policy.
- The unemployed distribution by the reasons of unemployment shows that the largest share of unemployed are people who didn't work earlier, people who quitted.
- The unemployed distribution by the last place of work shows that the highest unemployment rate in 2013 was among people who worked in the spheres with low qualification of workers. The lowest unemployment rate was observed among workers of the social sphere and sphere of public administration, these groups are also less sensitive to economic shocks.
- The reason of higher unemployment among young persons with higher education - deffered return from education. For other workers there is inverse relation between education level and unemployment.
2. The bulletin "Workplaces in the Russian Federation" covers the movement of workplaces in the Russian economy.
- Within the last decade the number of the workplaces redistributed between the enterprises: their number reduced at large and medium-sized enterprises due to insufficient renewal of workplaces and increased at small enterprises and beyond legal entities.
- Employment at small enterprises and beyond legal entities is explained by the growth of the services sector and reduction of agrarian and production sectors during the period: 2005 to 2014. Manufacturing industries (in production sector), agriculture (in agrarian sector), education (in the services sector) significantly reduced, trade and financial activity increased significantly during 2005 to 2014.
- Influence of an economic crisis could be stronger without intervention of the state (without growth of workplaces in public administration, military safety and health care and providing social services) in 2009-2010.
- The demand for workers in the economy has an ascending trend. Experts of health care, social workers, workers of manufacturing industries, workers in transport and communication are the most demanded. Ten most scarce professional subgroups included 8 subgroups of working professions and two groups of specialists (high and average skilled) in biology, agriculture, sciences and health care.
- Intensive workforce flows and high percentage of the university graduates not working in their speciality testifies to inefficient connection of workers and workplaces.
3. Bulletin "Presidential National Council for Professional Qualifications"
Presidential National Council for Professional Qualifications was founded to create and develop the system of professional qualifications in Russia. Council is an advisory body under the President of the Russian Federation formed for consideration of the questions concerning creation and development of professional qualifications system in the Russian Federation.
The Main objectives of Council:
- assistance of the President of the Russian Federation in definition of the state policy priority directions in the sphere of highly qualified personnel preparation;
- coordination of public authorities of the Russian Federation, associations of employers, labor unions and associations, public associations, educational, scientific and other organizations activities in the process of the professional qualifications system creation and development;
- examination of laws drafts and other regulations concerning development of professional qualifications system in the Russian Federation;
- examination of drafts of professional standards, preparation of expert opinions on them and development of suggestions for professional standards improvement;
- consideration of grafts of federal state standards of professional education, assessment of their compliance to professional standards, suggestions on their improvement;
- development of the qualifier (list) of professional activity types and its subsequent updating;
- assistance to the international cooperation in development of the national professional qualifications systems.
5 permanent and 3 temporary working groups specializing in different activities operate in Presidential National Council for Professional Qualifications.
Results of Presidential National Council for Professional Qualifications operation for the beginning of November, 2014:
- 181 drafts of professional standards were considered: 172 projects were approved, the additional recommendations to Ministry of Labor were given creation of councils for professional qualifications in the corresponding areas of professional activity according to 90 drafts of professional standards, the decision on the organization of monitoring of these professional standards application is made;
- 11 Sector Councils for professional qualifications were founded in construction, housing and communal services, financial markets, nanotech industry, sphere of hospitality, welding, information technologies, railway transport, lift economy, health care and power industry;
- 6 of laws drafts and other regulations on system of professional qualifications were reviewed;
Results of the research may be applied in development of a state of employment policy, they may be useful people who plan a professional trajectory, employers who form employment policy.