Methodology: Quantitative and qualitative sociological methods
Empirical base of research: Nationwide survey of the population, representing the adult (over 18) population of the Russian Federation on the gender, age, employment status and the type of settlement in which the respondent lives, as well as some federal districts of Russia. The scheme provides a sample of respondents with the following characteristics:
- The total amount - 1,600 people.,
- The number of subjects of the Russian Federation, in which the sample is realized - at least 40;
- The number of settlements (administrative territorial units - ATE) - at least 150;
- The number of respondents in one settlement (ATE) - at least five people.
- sampling error - 3.4%
Time of the survey - October-November 2015
Results of research:
In the sphere of retail trade
Researchers must treat the market and social exchange as the opposition, allowing the market to elude them as an object of sociological research [Krippner, 2001]. The market is not only influenced by social relations, but also includes social relations as embedded element. It is also assumed that the relational / embedded exchange is multidimensional.
Market relations are constructed through multiple strategic choices made by the two sides of exchange that can be switched between transactional and relational exchange regimes in each phase of the cycle of the contract. We affirm that no relational or transactional exchange predominates, and the majority of market participants are more likely to choose hybrid forms rather than a purely transactional or relational exchange [Baker, 1990; Uzzi, 1996; Cannon, Perreault, 1999]. The various elements of transactional and relational exchanges interspersed with each other.
Creating a general conclusion, we argue that market exchange is represented by various hybrid forms in which the transactional and relational elements are interspersed.
In the pricing behavior of Moscow citizens
The study put forward the assumption that it is now possible to observe a trend towards professionalization of consumers as agents of the market. Memorized attentiveness to prices - is not the lot of human resource constraints, but the characteristics of the active consumer, able not only to predict and control their costs and market choices.
In the area of market sharing and exchange of gifts in small towns
Rather than to consider the normal sale of goods on credit in shops as the practice of reciprocity and mutual assistance, we have shown how the communicating agents select mode of interaction - the market or the gift exchange.
In the area of confidence in financial institutions
The index value of public confidence in financial institutions in October 2015 was 85 points, which is the minimum figure for all 7 years of observation and the same level as in March 2009. As a result of the crisis financial situation of the majority of Russian families has worsened.
According to the Public Opinion Foundation, when in October 2014 the proportion of people who reported an improvement in their financial position for the preceding year, was 2-fold lower than that of those who pointed to the deterioration of their financial situation (13% vs. 25), then by October in 2015, the gap has increased by 3 times, pessimistic assessments became much more: 8% vs. 46%, respectively.
2015 did not lead to radical improvement in the dynamics of people's expectations. In response to the question "What do you personally a concern in the current situation?", 86% of respondents pointed to the phenomenon, in one way or another connected with the economic crisis - the rise in prices for goods and services, job loss (or potential loss), the decline in family income.
In the field of electronic payment systems
It was found that over the last 30 years, information and technology has greatly changed the nature of money, "rewarding" them a new, technological connotation. Electronic money has become the source of a whole system of payment instruments, tools and services, including internet banking, credit cards (with / without the possibility of shopping on the Internet), electronic purses, electronic money, payment systems and specialized etc.
The empirical analysis revealed two important things. The first - is that EPS is still in the Russian practice regarded as the specified technology, while at the same time, there was a trend towards wider distribution by simplifying the integration and use EPS to various mobile systems and e-mail marketing platform. At the same time at the moment EPS makes sense to consider primarily as an isolated set of payment systems, as if the individual successfully makes purchases in the networks of the Internet with the use of bank cards, the more likely it will continue to use the already "proven and convenient" for him the way, rather than resort to options electronic payment systems. The stability and availability of networks the Internet is a basic condition for the successful operation of EPS.
In the conducting of household budget
About one-quarter of Russians say that their families record receipts and expenses in writing.
The group of households where the practice of home accounting exists is not homogeneous. The kernel consists of those households in which conducted a written record of all financial income and expenses. In general, the practice of conducting home accounting in Russia is connected with the detailed planning of family budgets and the availability of long-term financial goals. Members of households where all income and expenses are recorded, tend not only to plan but also strictly follow them.
In Russia, the management of the family budget is not due to the credit behavior of household members, but due to the savings behavior. People whose households practiced home accounting, does not differ in their credit and debt behavior of the population of Russia as a whole.
In general, the practice of personal finance is independent of the level of per capita income. All income groups are equally involved in the record keeping of the family finances.
In freelance field
As a result, the empirical analysis confirmed the hypothesis that the Russian-speaking freelance market reduced the likelihood of opportunism of customers. Although empirical studies assert the ineffectiveness of legal means of protection against opportunism in the electronic markets telework [Osnowitz, 2010], this analysis showed that the use of such a legal instrument as a formal contract can be a very effective strategy.
Finally, it was confirmed that, despite the positive effect of informal social ties to reduce the likelihood of serious forms of opportunism, this factor also increases the likelihood of its less serious forms, such as changing the tasks and deadlines work.
In the field of market research of alcoholic beverag
Today we aesre witnessing an increasing variety of practices of alcohol consumption in the Russian society. Most popular are those that are associated with the consumption of the lungs and more expensive beverages. The traditional practice of the active consumption of vodka (in conjunction with a beer) is gradually losing its popularity fades into the background. Its carriers, as expected, are middle-aged men.
In the field of education market
In order to demonstrate how there is a transition state, we will use three concepts.
The first concept - is the attribution of labels [labeling], local authentication, which is the celebration of "us" and marks the emergence of social cohesion during the transition period. The second concept - is the creation of rumors or gossip [rumoring]. The third key concept - is the implementation of translation (translation).