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  • Development of the new approaches to the analysis and modeling of the behavior of actors of innovation processes and markets: diversity of innovation system actors

Development of the new approaches to the analysis and modeling of the behavior of actors of innovation processes and markets: diversity of innovation system actors

Priority areas of development: economics
2015
The project has been carried out as part of the HSE Program of Fundamental Studies.

Research object: In year 2015, the research project continued the studies of actors and actor types within innovation systems, behavioral patterns and linkages as well as factors that determine the innovation process characteristics. Specifically, the studies covered innovation behavior of enterprises and research organisations, actors of the knowledge intensive business services market, labor market of highly skilled professionals, innovation behavior of population.

Research objectives:

  1. Provision of theoretical and practical concepts, methodologies, tools and data for analysing the national innovation system, and the behaviour of and interactions among its elements.
  2. Study of individual actors and actor types within the innovation system, exploring and understanding the specificities of their organisation and behaviour, explaining how these features are determined and are evolving, and examining how agency is expressed in their objectives and strategies.
  3. Development of policy- and strategy-relevant knowledge about innovation processes and systems, including analysis of the institutional and contextual influences upon the extent, direction, and efficiency of innovation efforts.

Specific objectives for 2015:

  1. Developing an integrated harmonized approach to measuring R&D personnel
  2. Analysis of the technology transfer and the role of RTOs in the science-based innovations and industry-science relations
  3. Advancing approaches to the measuring and modelling of the R&D skills
  4. Modeling the heterogeneity of demand on innovation policy instruments
  5. Knowledge intensive business services: modeling actors and markets
  6. User and community innovation: study of innovations developed in amateur Do It Yourself communities.

Empirical Base of Research:

  1. Russian branch of European Manufacturing Survey (HSE Project Monitoring of Innovation Activities of Enterprises, since 2009)
  2. Monitoring of Innovation Activities of Research Performing Organisations (HSE Project, since 2010).
  3. Surveys of the activities of innovation behavior of population (HSE)
  4. Surveys of competences and skills of highly skilled professionals (HSE)
  5. Statistical indicators of science, technology and innovation
  6. Expert interviews
Results of Research:


Measurement of innovation strategies of large enterprises. A theoretical framework for measuring innovation was considered in its applicability to the specifics of the large companies. Following this basis, a systematization effort was undertaken in order to capture the existing practice of monitoring innovation activities in the Russian large enterprises with state participation. Recent advances on the evaluation and monitoring of the Programmes for innovation development of the large sate-participated companies were analyzed. Combining the theoretical perspective and the existing best practice makes possible to derive a number of implications for further framework development.

Functional roles of the organizations. Main results consider deepening methodological frameworks for analysis of functions of the research organisations as the actors of national innovation systems. Key forms and factors for interaction of the companies and enterprises were considered both statically and also facing the ongoing changes within the Russian innovation system and macroeconomic conditions.

First stage of the project considered the heterogeneity of research organizations with regard to the taxonomy of the technology transfer regimes. Both theoretical prospective and empirical evaluation of these regimes for the Russian data were performed.

Modelling the perspective demand on competences from the high technology sectors of the economy. This area implied cross-country analysis and systematization of human capital-related factors that influence the performance of national innovation systems. This stage was followed by the deep overview of the national practices to foster competence development. The initial steps created basis for the clusterization of the prospective competences for engineers operating in the high technology sector. Empirical data originates from the Monitoring of competences and skills of highly skilled professionals (HSE). Results show that the most demanded competence profiles include “open-minded, creative and technologically skilled manager”, “specialists with higher communication skills”, “creative employees”.

User innovation. The study considered user innovation in the Russian economy. The study shows that nearly 9,6% of population has experience of 'implementing innovation'. The empirical evidence indicates gender bias (more male innovators). Gender also indicates different motives and incentives to innovate and also areas for innovation. Male respondents are mainly associated with IT and computers. Females are more active in arts and gardening. The study identified key groups of innovators, such as: males from larger cities, high education, doing innovation for their career; inhabitants rural areas, innovation from the necessity, which is a distinctive feature of the developing countries.

Understanding of innovation. Activities this year included the proof-of-concept study for the framework developed in order to perform broader cognitive studies of innovation-related terms and definitions. The empirical study of the cognitive peculiarities of the innovation concept showed that nearly 50% of population found the ‘innovation’ word familiar and had some understanding of the underlying concept. However, elder people (65+) have nearly no idea about the meaning of the term. Key information source on the topic is the internet. Respondents provided plenty of examples of innovation but only a fraction of them matches the academic definition. At the same time, elder people indicate good understanding of the processes usually associated with innovation but have troubles with labeling them with the proper name.

Level of implementation, recommendations on implementation or outcomes of the implementation of Results: theresults were communicated via a number of highly praised scientific and expert platforms, including OECD Expert Groups: NESTI and TIP, international conferences, including XVI HSE April Conference (Moscow), Micro Evidence for Innovation and Development Economies,  and a number of research seminars. The discussion of results influenced applied projects performed by HSE in the areas of policy advice, including the projects for Ministry of Economic Development, Ministry of Science and Education, Ministry of Industry, Russian Federation.

Field of application:development of theoretical and methodological approaches for the analysis of innovation systems’ components and functions; development of empirical studies of science, technology and innovation; production of policy-relevant knowledge on the approaches for stimulating the efficiency and intensity of innovation across the economy sectors.

Publications:


Dyachenko E. Internal migration of scientists in Russia and the USA: the case of applied physics / NRU Higher School of Economics. Series WP BRP "Science, Technology and Innovation". 2016.
Gershman M., Karaulova M. Russia: Nanotechnology Country Profile / Manchester Institute of Innovation Research, University of Manchester. Series ES/J012785/1 "Emerging Technologies and Implications of Next Generation Innovation Systems Development in China and Russia". 2015.
Ivanova I., Strand Ø., Kushnir D., Leydesdorff L. The Efficiency of Triple-Helix Relations in Innovation Systems: Measuring the Connection between a Country’s Net Income and Its Knowledge Base / NRU Higher School of Economics. Series WP BRP "Science, Technology and Innovation". 2015. No. WP BRP 54/STI/2015.
Thurner T., Zaichenko S. The Feeding of the Nine Billion – A Case for Technology Transfer in Agriculture // International Journal of Innovation Management. 2015. Vol. 19. No. 2. P. 1-26. doi
Schartinger D., Miles I., Saritas O., Amanatidou E., Giesecke S., Heller-Schuh B., Pombo-Juarez L., Schreier G. Personal Health Systems Technologies: Critical Issues in Service Innovation and Diffusion // Technology Innovation Management Review. 2015. Vol. 5. No. 2. P. 46-57.