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Structural and institutional foundations of modern Russian markets

Priority areas of development: sociology
The project has been carried out as part of the HSE Program of Fundamental Studies.

Goal of research: identification of structural and institutional foundations of the modern Russian markets (for example, retail chains markets, financial, medical and educational services markets, alcoholic beverages, food products, freelance markets)

Methodology: Quantitative and qualitative sociological methods

Empirical base of research: Nationwide survey of the population, representing the adult (over 18) population of the Russian Federation on the gender, age, employment status and the type of settlement in which the respondent lives, as well as some federal districts of Russia. The scheme provides a sample of respondents with the following characteristics:

  • The total amount - 1,600 people,
  • The number of subjects of the Russian Federation, in which the sample is realized - at least 40;
  • The number of settlements (administrative territorial units - ATE) - at least 150;
  • The number of respondents in one settlement (ATE) - at least five people.
  • sampling error - 3.4%

Time of the survey - October-November 2015

Standardized survey of 843 managers of companies operating in Russia for food and non-food product markets (2013).

Results of research:

In the field of electronic payment systems

Empirical analysis has shown that the EPS are still regarded in the Russian practice as the specified technology, while, at the same time, there are tendencies towards more widespread distribution by simplifying usage and the integration of EPS into various mobile electronic systems and marketing sites. EPS still makes sense to consider as mainly an isolated set of payment systems, as if the individual successfully makes online shopping with the use of bank cards, it is likely that he will continue to use already "proven and convenient" for him ways, rather than resort to options of electronic payment systems. The stability and availability of the Internet network is a basic condition for the successful operation of the EPS.

At the same time, one of the important results of the study is the constructed typology of bank card users. Some interesting categories of users were obtained that can be a powerful analytical unit during subsequent waves of “Monitoring ...”. Dedicated 5 categories really contrasted in the context of socio-demographic parameters, however, they are not allocated to a greater extent in the analysis of the trust settings (either impersonal or institutional).

In the field of sociology of consumption

5 motives of nostalgic products consumption have been withdrawn: the belief in quality, habit, attractive image, “a genuine nostalgia” and the alternative to nostalgia "rational" motive.

Nostalgia and memory are inextricably linked. During the analysis of the sources of nostalgic feelings that influence consumer practices several categories of memories could be identified: personal memories, “social” memories, collective memory.

Three channels that broadcast nostalgia have been identified: the stories of family members (a main channel), multiple plots belonging to the Soviet cultural canon, and the institute of education.

In the field of education market

It has been shown that those managers who value their own academic identity, refer to themselves as “schizophrenics”, and tend to promote and hold their values. Moral solution for this “schizophrenia” is to show that you meet the requirements. It gives moral arguments in the debate and allows you to show that you are «in the same boat» with other university workers. This entitles them to a radical change, while keeping the balance between the two parties. This is not consistent with the idea of professional management in higher education and the need for separation of academic and administrative work (“everyone takes care of their cases”). As university employs more managers without academic background, the distance between the administration and the academy grows. While academic and administrative worlds become closer as allies (“the rating of the game managers”), the question is what type of control will turn these ties in favor of not only academic performance but also for the integration of the University.

In the well-being on the labour market

The results of the regression analysis showed that the higher the wages of the person, the more he is satisfied with his work and life in general. However, when considering the balance between work and personal life, this dependence becomes opposite, that is, other things being equal, the more a person earns, the higher the probability that he will be unhappy, how much time he could devote to family and household chores.

Internal labour values are generally positively associated with indicators of subjective socio-economic well-being, and the external labour values, conversely, are associated with well-being in negative way. In particular, if internal labour values are present, the person is more likely to be satisfied with both work and life in general. However, this has nothing to do with satisfaction with home and family matters. On the contrary, the presence of external labour values reduces life satisfaction, however this has nothing to do with job satisfaction as a whole.

In the field of relations between retailers and suppliers

The results provide us with additional reason to reject the concept of representing the market and society as two “hostile worlds”, and to analyze the market as a complex phenomenon, rich variety of social ties. For this we must turn to the study of direct interfirm exchange and to identify multiple combinations of inter-organizational relations, which are realized in different supply chains. It is useful to implement a variety of research tools produced relatively independently in the new economic sociology and relationship marketing.

In the alcoholic beverages market research

The amount of consumption and the overall share of consumers of spirits are reduced and, in parallel, partially replaced, at least until 2007, with the consumption of beer and wine. On the evidence, we cannot speak about sustainability of the new structure of alcohol consumption and on the current post-Soviet model. There is also no fracture in the trends of alcohol consumption that emerged in the 2000-ies.

Recorded changes in the structure of consumption of alcoholic beverages are generally consistent with the trends identified in the profile of Russia by the world health organization [WHO, 2014]. We can conclude that in Russia is more healthy by international standards the consumption of alcohol. While it is still very different from some "ideal" structure of the consumption of alcoholic beverages fixing a ratio which, in the opinion of leading international experts, minimizes negative consequences. With this structure, in the total consumption of alcoholic drinks beer is 50% wine, 35%, and spirits – 15% [Edwards et al., 1994]. To get closer to this structure, the consumption of beer and wine in Russia should still grow at the expense of further reducing the consumption of spirits.

In the field of medical services market

The data indicates that there is a wide gap between state promises to the population and its real capability. No country in the world provides cancer treatment at the expense of budget funds, as it is very expensive, especially considering the high prices typical for innovative original drugs. Quite often, these drugs promise a significant improvement in the condition of cancer patients, raising the chances of remission. Such a perspective can be useful for the state to strengthen legitimacy of political power in the eyes of the population while also improving the political image at the expense of commitment to innovation and international standards. The substitution of drugs of the previous generation of innovation at the level of the treatment protocols provided that budgets for drugs always have boundaries means avoiding the use of the “old” drug that was more affordable and, therefore, bought in large quantities. As a result, large chances of success get smaller number of people in need.


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