Aim of the Study:
The study is dedicated to the analysis of external effects of cultural and creative industries being important actors of the current cultural policy. The study investigates direct and indirect effects, as well as event industry as a form of fulfillment of the aims of cultural policy. It also looks in detail into effects of cultural festivals that are the main research object of the study.
In order to reach the aims of the study the following methods of data collection were used: data collection through open sources, in-depth interviews, and observations.
For further analysis, the following methods were applied to the data mentioned above: principal component analysis, axial coding method, and mapping.
Empirical Database of the Study:
- Festival websites that have access to the services which analyze website traffic and social network groups traffic, as well as user profiles (websites of 9 festivals);
- In-depth interviews with managers of 6 creative spaces (37 interviews);
- Information on the performance of social network groups of cultural establishments and creative industries organizations, and participation intensity rates of the members of these groups (153 groups);
- Websites and social network groups of classical music festivals (25 festivals);
- Interviews with the organizers of classical music festivals (10 interviews);
- Semi-structured interviews with visitors of a museum complex (152 interviews);
- Observation data on visitors of different parts of a museum complex;
- Data on GPS-positioning of shooting spaces in royal residences in Europe (424 geolocations).
Results of the Study:
Results of the study on the mechanisms of effective promotion of cultural establishments and creative industries organizations on the Internet clearly showed that the effectiveness of promotional activities depends largely on the type of funding. Commercial organizations are more interested in their promotion. Due to limited resources, most of them choose the least expensive forms of promotion, in particular social networking. Often this approach is more effective since it reaches their target audience.
The results showed that joint projects of cultural establishments and creative industries organizations is another important aspect in their promotional activities. It creates additional newsbreak for the organization and helps to attract partner organizations. The strategy of creative industries to inform about creative spaces rather than their projects, that was mentioned in the interviews, may prove less effective for promotion.
Thus, the effectiveness of promotion of cultural establishments and creative industries organizations depends largely on the intensity of activities of these organizations in their daily operations and involvement in various projects. This, in turn, may depend on the type of funding.
The results of the analysis on effectiveness of festival promotion that was done through the instruments of web-analytics showed that the majority of festivals do not aim to position and promote themselves professionally on social networks. Many festivals have a high rate of declines to open their websites, which may be connected with poor usability of the websites. The majority of analyzed festivals promote themselves solely on one social network, while disregarding the audience of other online communication platforms. On top of that, a part of them does not have any specific services installed on their websites aimed at analyzing the traffic and the visitors. Poor effectiveness of event marketing on social networks and the absence of analytics is also proved by the fact that the inflow of visitors to the website and social network groups happens often on those days, when no thematic content is being posted.
The analysis of the audience development of the classical music festivals demonstrated that the festival organizers do not study their audience through surveys or any other research methods. Moreover, the lack of funding limits the opportunities for festival promotion. The analysis showed that despite the existing difficulties, currently classical music festivals promote themselves effectively via social networks.
The research on atmospherics in museum and park complexes showed that the lack of an adequate and user-friendly navigation system affects the perception of atmospherics of museum complexes and complicates the access of visitors to the consumption of cultural goods (values). This, in turn, may affect the probability of return visits because it hinders the cognitive processes of visitors, their experience and emotions, and influences the consumption of the services available on the territory of the museum.
The results also demonstrated that the following elements can be attributed to the factors of atmospherics (or environment) of royal residences: natural landscape, sea, architecture of the main constructions (palaces), constructions that are not typical of royal residences (the village of Marie-Antoinette in Versailles).
The above-mentioned list of factors is quite limited, which is largely due to the fact that vast territories of palace and park complexes are not used to the full. Organization of events may help to raise awareness of the cultural heritage and, as a consequence, to raise interest in the full-scale use of the palace and park zones.
Degree of Implementation, Recommendations for Implementation and the Results of Implementation of the Research Findings:
The results of the study can be used by the creative and cultural industries organizations for improving their marketing mix (especially in terms of digital instruments) and for the creation of their own development strategies that take into account cooperation with various groups of stakeholders. The organizations may also use the study results for development of more targeted conceptions of their products and services and for the promotional activities that focus on consumer needs and special features of consumer practices of various groups of stakeholders.
The suggested methodology may prove beneficial for future research on the investigation and evaluation of direct and indirect effects of performance of organizations. The practical implications of the research may also be of interest to the regional and city management bodies in terms of the evaluation of effects of the performance of cultural and creative industries organizations.