Goal of research is to investigate the conflict between two models (modernization one and conservatism one) of Russian media system, including its determinants, forms, consequences and contexts (economical, political, legal, technological and cultural).
Methodology. The following methods were used in the research project: structural-functional, institutional, actor-network analysis as well as social-constructivist, anthropological and media ecological approaches. Key empirical methods were secondary data analysis, statistical analysis (SPSS analysis), and social network analysis (R and ORA software).
Empirical base of research: results of statistical and social network analysis of database of state informational contracts (sample of 12 regions, 5209 contracts in total, signed in 2011-2014); results of secondary analysis of experts’ materials, data from other research organizations, industry reviews, normative documents.
Results of research. During the implementation of the research project authors revealed the following things:
- Dualistic nature of Russian media system is linked with conflict interrelationships between modernization vector and vector of conservative paternalism. Consequences of this situations is the construction of parallel protectionist quasi-markets, inequalities in the development of media markets of different regions, managerial gaps between implementation of liberal market practices and practices of state quasi-capitalism.
- Practices of state informational form such situation on media markets when public service function is distributed between actors of the markets (including commercial media outlets) through contracting mechanism. In this situation an end customer (audience) cannot influence on the choice of supplier and quality of producing content. Journalists are participated in quasi-market relations and state client imposes media companies “clientelistic” model of relations.
- Research of Russian TV market demonstrated that concentration of media capital in three media holdings, state-owned (VGTRK) or affiliated with state actors (Gazprom Media, Natsionalnaya Media-Gruppa), plays a crucial role in keeping TV as a reliable resource of political domination. Oligopolistic media market legitimizes ideology of the authorities and supports the discourse of authoritarianism.
- Accreditation of journalists can be used for limitation of their professional activities. The following schemes are possible: accreditation as work permit, unclear rules of accreditation, selective conditions for accreditation, accreditation as a mechanism of control of content; arbitrary procedures of accreditation; limitations as symmetric response.
- Research of key trends of media, communication and content industries allows to forecast future media markets, in Russia and abroad. Development of media industries is affected by global challenges (economical, social, ecological etc.); new technologies play the main role in changes of industrial chains and business-models of media. Key trends in production of media content, its package, distribution and consumption are connected with robotics, smartification, sensorization and other technological innovations.
- Intensive development of communication and information technologies, rise of new content industries and media markets transform everyday life, practices of communities and social institutes. At the same time processes of mediatization are inspired by social needs, meanings and contradictions. Further vector of our research will be connected with investigation of mediatization of different socio-cultural environments and practices as well as with the development of mediatization theory.