Goal of research:
The goal of the research is to elaborate an integrative approach to the demarcation of the disciplinary boundaries of philosophical rationality. To attain this goal, following key questions should be answered: what is the systematicity of philosophical knowledge; how the meta-philosophical and meta-logical investigation is possible when the pluralism of philosophical and logical systems is recognized; what methods of rational inquiry initiate philosophical questioning; is it possible to speak of non-conventional criteria for demarcation of the boundaries between philosophical disciplines (such as logic, ethics, aesthetics etc.); how the rational dialogue of different philosophical traditions is achievable? These questions are particularly relevant not only because philosophy is traditionally inclined to reflect on its own foundations, but because philosophy as an academic and scientific discipline requires to define itself practically and institutionally.
The research combines conceptual resources from both analytical and continental philosophy in meta-philosophical and meta-logical reflection on its own foundations. Among different methodological approaches in continental philosophy, hermeneutics and phenomenology have a particular significance for the project. As to analytical tradition, the goals of the project can be achieved by using the conceptual frameworks of game-theoretical and model-theoretical semantics, logics with generalized quantification, dynamic, epistemic, many-valued, quantum logic, as well as methods of neurophenomenology, analytical metaphysics of action and meta-ethics.
Empirical base of research:
Since the project addresses fundamental philosophical problems, no empirical research was conducted.
Results of research:
The project explicated the methodological grounds for the dichotomy of descriptive and prescriptive (normative) metaphilosophy. It shows that meta-ethics and normative ethics tend to interact in analytical and continental philosophy. The trajectory of a new research program is outlined: meta-philosophy of science is viewed as a reflection on how science studies can interact with a philosophical or logical conception. It is showed that the orthomodular logical structure, common to both quantum theory and theory of relativity, provides a foundation for quantum logic and causal logic of space-time; thus, it can be regarded as forming the basis for non-classical science in general and as a key characteristic of the non-classical type of scientific rationality. This type of rationality takes into account the interconnections between the knowledge of the object and the special features of the operations with it. The project studies the history of conceptions about the discreteness, continuity and objectivity of time in modern physics and proposes its meta-philosophical interpretation. The arithmetization of the standard set of logical oppositions was carried out; it can be used to legitimize the Leibnizian characteristica universalis project in contemporary logic.
It was proven that there is a transition from traditional understanding of logic as normative theory of correct reasoning to the interpretation of logic as a formal theory that studies intellectual agents in dynamic interactions. The focus of attention in meta-logic has shifted from formal ontology (a theory of higher order formal objects) to the formal deontology. This shift leads to the rejection of apriority of logical norms and raises the question of their design; the original distinction between substantial and dynamic models of formality helped to show the advantages of the transition. Kant's understanding of formality in general pure logic is demonstrated to be dynamic. There was given the model of epistemic agents' social influence which opened up a new perspective for the epistemic logic of «non-ideal» agents whose actions are limited not by the lack of computational resources, but by the 'interferences' in social interaction. Based on the many-valued logic, a new classification of agents was proposed, in which different types of agents (positive, negative, skeptic, eclectic) are identified depending on their demands for justification of propositions and their negations. It was shown that if the personality of an agent is included in the causal model of action as an immediate cause and this personality changes during the decision-making process, then it allows to resolve a number of classical difficulties in analytical metaphysics of action (the problem of control in particular).
The project outlined the perspective of dialogue between phenomenology and analytical philosophy around the attempts to reflect on their own foundations and methods. The comparison between models of 'philosophical wonder' by E. Husserl, L. Wittgenstein and Russian formalism ('estrangement') made it possible to interpret estrangement as a form of philosophical practice rooted in phenomenological transformation of subjectivity; the new form of estrangement was uncovered - ‘meta-estrangement’. It is demonstrated that when the problem of understanding is transferred on the ground of philosophy of culture, the new typology of understanding of the literary text can be elaborated. The project explicated how the phenomenology of enactivism might legitimize 'the hard problem of consciousness'. The 'gap problem' which lies at the heart of 'the hard problem of consciousness' does not threaten the enactivist approach; in fact, this 'gap' is naturally embedded in the enactivist ontology. The solution to the paradoxes of Kantian a priori as an aprioristic perfect was proposed; it is based on such phenomenological categories as «it's about time» and «birth».
The project has resulted in a number of articles that are published or are in print: 6 articles in English and French in foreign peer-reviewed journals (including 2 articles in journals indexed in the Scopus quartiles 1-2, and one article in journal indexed in the Scopus quartile 3), 3 chapters in English and French monographs published by the publishing house from a B category in the SENSE Ranking of academic publishers; 9 articles in Russian and English languages in Russian journals from the lists of VAK; 2 articles in Russian journals; 1 article in conference proceedings. As the part of the project.
Level of implementation, recommendations on implementation or outcomes of the implementation of the results
The results of the research were presented as 30 reports on different conferences and workshops. In particular, they were approbated on the international conferences organized by Laboratory for Philosophical Studies - 'The Bounds of Logic Reloaded' (20-21 October 2016) and 'Les limites de la rationalité philosophique' (23-24 November 2016) - as well as on the following international academic events: 'The Legacies of Aristotle as Constitutive Element of European Rationality', Moscow; 'How to Say 'Yes' or 'No': Logical Approaches to Modes of Assertion and Denial', Lecce; 'Logic Today: Developments and Perspectives', Saint-Petersburg; Russian-Chinese conference 'Development of social and moral values', Wuhan, etc.
The methodological and theoretical results obtained in the research were included in the academic courses on logic (E. Dragalina-Chernaya, V. Vasyukov, V. Dolgorukov, I. Karpenko), ontology and epistemology (V. Porus, D. Gasparyan, S. Astakhov), history of philosophy (G. Chernavin), philosophy of language (A. Mishura), and ethics, in course papers (I. Pavlov) and in Ph.D. theses (A. Mishura, S. Astakhov, A. Kopylova, D. Shamis, M. Morozova).