Research object: In year 2016, the research project continued the studies of actors and actor types within innovation systems, behavioral patterns and linkages as well as factors that determine the innovation process characteristics. Specifically, the studies covered innovation behavior of enterprises and research organisations, labor market of highly skilled professionals, public awareness and attitudes towards science and technology.
- Provision of theoretical and practical concepts, methodologies, tools and data for analysing the national innovation system, and the behaviour of and interactions among its elements.
- Study of individual actors and actor types within the innovation system, exploring and understanding the specificities of their organisation and behaviour, explaining how these features are determined and are evolving, and examining how agency is expressed in their objectives and strategies.
- Development of policy- and strategy-relevant knowledge about innovation processes and systems, including analysis of the institutional and contextual influences upon the extent, direction, and efficiency of innovation efforts.
Specific objectives for 2016:
- Analysis of the innovation strategies of the large enterprises with state participation;
- Analysis of functions, mechanisms and models of efficient engagement of the research organisations in the innovation processes;
- Systematization of the short- and long-term factors that determine the quality of the human capital of the high-technology sector organizations;
- Analysis of the impact of social and economic factors on the public attitudes towards science and technology.
Empirical Base of Research:
- Monitoring of Innovation Activities of Enterprises (HSE data collection project);
- Monitoring of Innovation Activities of Research Performing Organisations (HSE data collection project);
- Surveys of the activities of innovation behavior of population (HSE data collection project);
- Surveys of competences and skills of highly skilled professionals (HSE data collection project);
- Statistical indicators of science, technology and innovation;
- Expert interviews.
Results of Research:
Innovation strategies of the larger enterprises with state participation The series of case studies supported with a special data collection allowed to address the efficiency of the Programmes of the innovation development of the large state-owned enterprises, an ‘innovation enforcement’ type of policy measure to promote national innovation performance. One of the key areas revealed in common was a special focus on the cooperative linkages that resulted in the increasing practice of business-science cooperation. Another finding was that the estimated share of the achieved KPI in such programs varies around 88%. All in all, the Programmes of the innovation development prove to be a flexible instrument resulting in a better performance than expected by sceptics.
Innovation activities of the research organizations The studies reveal that the role of the research organizations in the innovation process goes far beyond the expected technology transfer function. ROs perform a range of knowledge-intensive services not directly related to R&D, including engineering, metrology, certification and others. Empirical data on the portfolio of services help to construct a taxonomy of the RO’s profiles with regard to the complex collaboration with business sector. Focusing on two key dimensions – academic excellence and the technology services – proved that the best results are observed for the complementary strategies as opposed to limiting performance over single area of competence.
Trends for the human capital in the high-tech sectors Rapid technological, economic and societal change distorts the existing relationships between the skilled professionals and the demand side of the labor market. Human capital development appears to be a strategic challenge both in the sort and long term. The systematization of the global trends within this project resulted in a set of factors determining the areas for the proactive intervention by both the business, the state and the educational system per se in order to comply with the emerging changes.
Societal and economic determinants of the public awareness and attitudes towards science and technologies The empirical analysis revealed the link between the democratization of the country and the populations’ engagement into the issues and challenges of the science and technology up to the participation in the shaping of the STI policies. On one hand that is predictable and correlated with generally better access to the control mechanisms in the democratic countries. At the same time, the study showed that the factors that determine a person’s engagement into the policy-related procedures are significantly different from the factors that generally account for engagement into the invention and innovation activities. Also, democratization appears to be negatively correlated with the level of distrust towards science and technology resulting from the better public discussions on the topic.
Level of implementation, recommendations on implementation or outcomes of the implementation of Results: theresults were communicated via a number of highly praised scientific and expert platforms and international conferences, including the notable Blue Sky III Forum (Ghent), XVII HSE April Conference (Moscow), Micro Evidence for Innovation and Development Economies (UNU-MERIT), and a number of research seminars. The discussion of results influenced applied projects performed by HSE in the areas of policy advice, including the projects for Ministry of Economic Development, Ministry of Science and Education, Ministry of Industry, Russian Federation.
Field of application: development of theoretical and methodological approaches for the analysis of innovation systems’ components and functions; development of empirical studies of science, technology and innovation; production of policy-relevant knowledge on the approaches for stimulating the efficiency and intensity of innovation across the economy sectors.