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Regular version of the site

Monitoring of civil society (Wave 11)

Department: Centre for Studies of Civil Society and Non-Profit Sector
The project has been carried out as part of the HSE Program of Fundamental Studies.

Subject of research:

  • population of Russia and different social groups;
  • noncommercial non-state organizations (NPO);
  • members, militants, volunteers, employees, heads of NPO;
  • other actors of civil society in our country.

Goal of research: to evaluate current position of social society for development and applying of state policy to support and evolve its institutions, NCOs particularly, provide full, authoritative and regularly updated information needed for analysis and prediction of development of civil society in Russia to those actors who are interested in it.

Tasks of research:

  • system identification of monitored object;
  • creating of data base of indicators of current position of civil society in Russia;
  • preparation of analytical materials that could as well explain processes of russian civil society as describe empirical data about the current position of civil society in Russia
  • modeling and prediction of ways to develop civil society in Russia.

Used methods:

  • analysis of findings of theoretical and empirical, Russian and foreign investigations;
  • collecting of empirical data using sociological methods (surveys, interviews, focus group).
  • analysis and generalization of empirical data based on principles of historicism, comparative historical, comparative legal and formal-legal methods
  • mathematical methods of data analysis (in particular ANOVA, factor analysis, cluster analysis (hierarchic, K-means), regression analysis, including multiple regression, binary logistic regression, TOBIT и HECKMAN regression, CHAID-analysis, etc.);

Empirical base of research:

  • Results of the previous rounds of studies on NPOs and on Russian civil society, conducted by the HSE Centre for Studies of Civil Society and the Nonprofit Sector during the 2009-2016;
  • Data of the Government statistics office (Federal State Statistics Service, Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation)
  • Data from sociological and historical researches connected with different aspects of developing of society and nongovernmental nonprofit sector in Russia
  • Data from the Russian representative survey of nongovernmental nonprofit organizations, conducted by the Centre for Research on Civil Society and the Nonprofit Sector in 2015. The sample size was 850 NGOs in 33 regions of the Russian Federation. The survey was conducted by quota sampling, using representative quotas according to legal forms and year of registration of NGOs. In accordance with the set quotas leaders of organizations located in urban districts, urban settlements and other municipalities were interviewed. The 33 regions were selected on the basis of three sets of characteristics: urbanization index, indicator of the nonprofit sector development (according to the quantities), indicator of economic development of the regions of the Russian Federation determined as the ratio of a region’s the gross regional product to the all Russian average. The interviewees were selected with the use of the official registries of nonprofit organizations and voluntary associations in the selected regions. No more than two thirds of the total number of interviewees in each region was interviewed in the regional administrative center (except Moscow and Saint Petersburg).
  • Data from two all Russian representative population surveys of urban and rural population of Russia at the age of 18 and older conducted in 2015. Sample consists of 1500 respondents. Data was collected by the method of formalized interview with the use of a structured questionnaire at the place of residence of an interviewee in 43 regions of the Russian Federation. Multistage stratified areal random sampling was used. Statistical error of obtained data is not higher than 3,3%.

Results of research:

New empirical data about the current position of civil society in Russia is obtained as a result of the research, methodology of monitoring investigations of civil society in its different aspects is specified, theoretical conceptions explained processes of civil society are developed.

a) in theoretical area:

  • Theoretical approaches to studying of religion and the religious capital were considered and the empirical researches characterizing interrelation of public activity of the population and religiousness were generalized.
  • Theoretical approaches were considered and empirical researches were generalized which can characterize connection between citizens’ participation in charity practices (with funding and volunteering) with the generalized and interpersonal trust, and also trust to non-profit organizations.
  • Theoretical approaches to fundraising in nonprofit organizations activities were considered. The main directions of researches in the field of fundraising, including researches of the charitable environment and, first of all, donors, research of fundraising as professional sphere of activity and as functions of management of non-profit organizations were systematized.
  • Theoretical aspects of application of marketing in activity of NPO were considered. Expediency of extension of the concept of marketing in noncommercial sector is proved, orientation to the market as a form of implementation of the concept of marketing is analysed as the organizational philosophy which gave rise to a certain form of organizational culture and as a number of the standards of behavior which are coordinated with values of culture of market orientation. Theoretical aspects of marketing approach to fundraising in NGO were considered.

b) in methodological area:

  • methodology of monitoring research of civil society in its different aspects is specified.

c) in the area of obtaining new empirical information

  • Actual condition of expert society in Russia and its role in interaction between society and authorities was characterized 
  • Ideas of representatives of the Russian non-profit organizations about measurement of efficiency of voluntary activity in Russia were analyzed;
  • Main types of public activity of Russians were characterized, the role of religion and religious behavior in development of public activity of Russians was specified;
  • Level and factors of participation of Russians in public hearings, including a place of civil activity (organized and unorganized) is revealed; the role of participants of public hearings as microactors of the Russian transformational process is specified;
  • The role of the generalized, interpersonal trust and trust to non-profit organizations in development of charitable activity of Russians is revealed;
  • The analysis of sector of socially oriented non-profit organizations in Russia in a section of the following indicators was prepared: total number of social-oriented NPOs in general and per 1000 inhabitants, total number of employees and volunteers of social-oriented NPOs in general and per 1 organization; sources of receipts of money and other property of social-oriented NPOs, availability of rooms (buildings) for social NPOs; the main results of work of social-oriented NPOs;
  • Activities in fundraising in the Russian non-profit organizations were analyzed: the most used methods of fundraising and payment mechanisms were revealed, most popular and unpopular subjects of donations were listed, the characteristic of the main tendencies and prospects of development of fundraising in Russia is given;
  • Marketing activity of the Russian NGOs is characterized and the tipologization of the organizations for a form of marketing activity is offered. The interrelation of marketing activity and various aspects of activity of the Russian NGOs connected with organizational characteristics and features of management is analyzed.
  • Analysis of the specifics of participation of an older (over 60) Russians in such charitable activities as monetary donations and volunteering; by means of the regression analysis the main determinants of such participation are allocated: education existence, continuation of work after retirement, visit of church (the temple, a mosque), readiness to unite with people for joint actions and participation in voluntary work;
  • Information on a range of indicators (130) allowing for dynamic observation of the changes in civil society

Level of implementation, recommendations on implementation or outcomes of the implementation of the results

Monitoring of civil society gives opportunity to make valid conclusions about the main parameters of civil society and nonprofit sector, support empirical base including interregional and intertemporal comparisons and also predict the development of institutions of civil society.

Materials of current research were used:

  • Preparation of informative analytical bulletin about the development of civil society and the nonprofit sector in Russia published by the Center for Studies of Civil Society and the Nonprofit Sector NRU HSE. The bulletin is published regularly on paper and in the Internet.
  • Teaching at the academic program on Public Administration at the Public Administration Department, Faculty of Social Sciences, NRU HSE.
  • Organizing open classroom "Civil society in Russia and abroad" (The center of researches of civil society and noncommercial sector of NRU HSE (2016/2017 academic year)
  • Organizing seminars during the summer school on "Long-term prospects of development of sector of non-state non-profit organizations in Russia: approaches to an assessment and their approbation" (Center of researches of civil society and noncommercial sector of NRU HSE, September, 2016)

The significance of study results are that they can be used in:

  • government and municipal management in the development of concepts of federal, regional and municipal level programs and in legal acts in the field of development and support for the civic engagement and feasibility of non-profit organizations;
  • in the training future and current public administrators and employees of nongovernmental nonprofit organizations;
  • in the curricula of educational institutions of different fields, including NPO management, government and municipal management, in the frame of staff qualification courses for government municipal management.



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