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Positive and negative discrimination of cultural groups and identification theory

Priority areas of development: sociology, humanitarian
2017
The project has been carried out as part of the HSE Program of Fundamental Studies.

Goal of research: to study a complex of issues characterizing the relations of a state with the small social cultural groups in the region of Asia and North Africa, considering two factors: positive and negative discrimination, identification and self-identification of the small social cultural groups.

Methodology: The methodology of the research is based on the use of an interdisciplinary approach in the generalization and analysis of the studied material. Individual parts of the project rely on the classical methods of Asian studies: source criticism and studying of manuscript monuments, as well as fieldwork methods used by project participants in expeditions to the Middle East and East Asia, comparative methods of studying linguistic and socio-ethnographic material, linguistic and historical methods.

Empirical base of research: The empirical base of the research covers a wide range of sources: manuscript heritage monuments of the Eastern world peoples, language corpora and dictionary basis of the Asian and African peoples, the materials from the media of the countries of Asia and Africa, the materials obtained from field research, the legislative base of the countries of Asia and Africa, archival materials.

Results of research:

  • The theoretical provisions were formulated, which characterize the relationships between the state and the small social cultural groups, applying a binary scale of criteria: firstly, in the context of the positive and negative discrimination policy; secondly, in the context of various forms of identification and self-identification of the small social cultural groups;
  • Specific examples were analyzed, demonstrating how a state shapes its attitude to different small social cultural groups, including ethnic and religious ones, on the examples of the Uighur ethnic minority situation in the PRC, the Mamluk elite in medieval Egypt, the efendi class in the Ottoman Empire;
  • Social self-categorization of the small groups (minorities) and the influence of their presence in the area on the national and subregional security were researched on the examples of particular countries (Arab countries, Turkey, Iran, China, Israel, Japan and others);
  • The frontier spaces adjoining the Russian Federation borders, as well as the border areas within the state, where the policy towards the small social cultural groups plays an important role in the formation of the state (national) security concept, were explored. In this context, the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of the PRC, the processes of forming parties and groupings in Iran and the intellectual elite in Turkey were examined.
  • The influence of education on the formation of the small social cultural groups and the interaction of the groups with the state were studied on the example of the Muslim education and education of the efendi class.

All the tasks of CAAS in 2017 are highly relevant, since they affect the vital interests of the Russian Federation and represent the subject of not only scientific discussions, but also a problematic field of practical politics and economics, education and culture in general. The need for various examinations on the issues of the relationships between the states and the small social cultural groups is steadily increasing. This issue is especially acute in regions with escalated political and social tensions or where the risks of destabilization are highly probable: the Middle East, Central Asia, the Caucasus and the South Caucasus, Eastern and Southeast Asia.

Level of implementation, recommendations on implementation or outcomes of the implementation of the results:

The results of the research work can be used and are being used in reading lecture courses within the bachelor's degree programs of Asian and African studies; when conducting expert work in the field of international relations, international business and international cultural exchanges, considering the specific features of the regions of Asia and Africa.

Publications:


Iliushina M., Evgeny I. Zelenev. Islamic education and personal career mobility in the Circassian Sultanate (late 14th - early 15th century) // Iran and the Caucasus. 2017. Vol. 21. No. 3. P. 292-302. doi
Илюшина М. Ю. Эмир атāбак в мамлюкской политической иерархии // В кн.: Азия и Африка: наследие и современность. XXIX Международный конгресс по источниковедению и историографии стран Азии и Африки. 21-23 июня 2017 г. Материалы конгресса / Отв. ред.: Н. Дьяков, А. Матвеев. Т. 1. СПб. : НП-Принт, 2017. С. 59-61.
Soloshcheva M. The “Uyghur Terrorism” Phenomenon: Historical Background and Genesis // Iran and the Caucasus. 2017. Vol. 21. No. 4. P. 415-430. doi
Алексеев А. К. «Шарх-и зиндагани-йи ман» Абдаллаха Мустауфи как источник по истории Ирана в период Второй мировой войны и послевоенные годы // В кн.: Азия и Африка: наследие и современность. XXIX Международный конгресс по источниковедению и историографии стран Азии и Африки. 21-23 июня 2017 г. Материалы конгресса / Отв. ред.: Н. Дьяков, А. Матвеев. Т. 1. СПб. : НП-Принт, 2017. С. 108-110.
Алексеев А. К. Шарх-и зиндагани--йи ман Абдаллаха Мустауфи как источник по истории Ирана в период Второй Мировой войны и послевоенные годы // В кн.: С. 108-110.
Вуль Н. А. Интеграция китайских военных кругов в политические процессы на рубеже XIX–XX вв. // Вестник Бурятского научного центра Сибирского отделения Российской академии наук. 2016. Т. 4. № 24. С. 106-113.