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Types of representations in cognitive tasks

Priority areas of development: humanitarian
2017
The project has been carried out as part of the HSE Program of Fundamental Studies.

Research goals: (1) investigation of a variety of perceptual and conceptual (categorical) representations in different cognitive tasks; (2) development and approbation of experimental methods.

Methodology: The main research method was the factorial experiment, also the quasi-experiment was used. The object of research was a variety of representations constructed in the course of performance on various cognitive tasks.

Empirical base of research: samples of human participants (healthy volunteers) of different ages.

Results of research:  The following new results were obtained. The possible link between activation of categorical representation of real-life objects and motor programs of their use was experimentally revealed. In a natural context, the additional activation of the corresponding motor action supports the choice of a category this object might belong to. A number of new negative results were obtained in the investigation of human creative thinking. The functional fixedness effect was not empirically eliminated by the “weakening” of connection between the object and its main functional attribute, a manipulation that could have led to the increase in creativity. The results of the investigation into the properties of visual working memory show that recollection of objects with low discriminability is more difficult: the percentage of identification for such objects was lower than for highly discriminable objects belonging to various categories. Moreover, the use of hardly verbalizable stimuli demonstrates that the object-location binding is not influenced by verbal encoding. Limitations of the enhancement of visual search for letters in familiar words as compared to random letter sequences were analyzed. Besides the lack of eyetracking correlates of word detection in the search for target letters in large letter arrays containing words, and besides the lack of transfer from letter search to word search within the same arrays, it has been shown that after the letter search task conscious and unconscious processing indices for words which are not spatially segregated are quite low, which imposes limitations on explanatory models and allows arguing that word superiority effects in perceptual tasks require spatial segregation of a word. The stable and replicable effect of emotional congruency was obtained for the emotional expression recognition task in two experiments using two different procedures of the emotion induction. The main new result of this study was that the emotional congruency effect emerges in perception of ambiguous facial expressions, and that it doesn’t depend on the presentation duration. The most important result of the whole project is the elaboration and clarification of theoretical models of information representation across the variety of cognitive tasks regarding various kinds of information, starting from perceptual properties of the visual field and finishing with emotional valence of photographic images of human faces.

Level of implementation,  recommendations on implementation or outcomes of the implementation of the results. The project was essentially fundamental and did not suppose any direct implementation of its results.

Publications:


Utochkin I. S., Vostrikov, Konstantin O. The numerosity and mean size of multiple objects are perceived independently and in parallel // Plos One. 2017. Vol. 12. No. 9. P. 1-20. doi
Фаликман М. В. Спонтанное обнаружение слов в буквенных массивах в ходе поиска букв: о чем говорит процедура диссоциации процессов // В кн.: Когнитивная наука в Москве: новые исследования. Материалы конференции 15 июня 2017 г. [б.и.], 2017. С. 365-369.
Хвостов В. А., Уточкин И. С. Динамика хранения иерархических репрезентаций в зрительной рабочей памяти // В кн.: Когнитивная наука в Москве: новые исследования. Материалы конференции 15 июня 2017 г. [б.и.], 2017. С. 387-393.
Фаликман М. В., Бондаренко Я. А. Эксплицитная и имплицитная репрезентация слов в задаче зрительного поиска букв в больших буквенных массивах, содержащих слова // В кн.: Механизмы построения и переструктурирования репрезентации. Материалы Всероссийской научной конференции. Яр. : НПЦ «Психодиагностика», 2017.
Utochkin I. S., Khvostov V., Stakina Y. Ensemble-Based Segmentation in the Perception of Multiple Feature Conjunctions / Издательский дом НИУ ВШЭ. Series WP BRP "PSYCHOLOGY". 2017. No. 78.
Yuri A. Markov, Igor S. Utochkin. The effect of object distinctiveness on object-location binding in visual working memory / Издательский дом НИУ ВШЭ. Series WP BRP "PSYCHOLOGY". 2017. No. 79.
Кожухова Ю. А., Сучкова Е. А., Люсин Д. В. Эмоциональная конгруэнтность при восприятии эмоций по выражениям лица // В кн.: Когнитивная наука в Москве: новые исследования. Материалы конференции 15 июня 2017 г. [б.и.], 2017. С. 138-141.
Люсин Д. В., Сысоева Т. А. Эмоциональная окраска имён существительных: база данных ENRuN // Психологический журнал. 2017. Т. 38. № 2. С. 122-131.