There are used theoretical and empirical (statistical) methods of data analysis, in particular, premises and methods of neoclassical and neoinstitutional economic theory and the theory of human capital. In empirical studies, there are broadly used statistical and economic methods for the analysis of data collected by means of vast sociological surveys.
There is used data of the Monitoring of Education Markets and Organizations project, the Changing Academic Profession project, the Academic Profession in the Knowledge-Based Society project, the multipanel longitudal study “Trajectories in Education and Careers”, the citation databases Web of Science and Scopus.
The analysis of studies evaluating effectiveness of state programs for increasing competitive abilities of higher education institutions in different countries showed that stimulating national higher education system is a universal practice, which, however, does not always lead to similar results. There were described peculiarities of doctoral education systems in 15 regions of the world: Africa, Brazil, Chile, China, France, Germany, Japan, Kazakhstan, Korea, Poland, Russia, South Africa, the UAE, the UK, the USA. The analysis of connection between academic inbreeding and publication productivity of Russian researchers carried out on the basis of three datasets encompassing different segments of the academic system did not reveal the difference between inbreeds and non-inbreeds in terms of current publication productivity. There was, however, found difference in publication productivity throughout the whole career: inbreeds prove to be more efficient. On the basis of the multipanel longitudal study “Trajectories in Education and Careers,” it was shown that the average salary for the region is positively correlated with estimations on salary expectancy after graduation from higher education institutions, however, it does not influence the relative return from higher education. Generally, the results consort with the statements of the human capital theory and speak of the rationality of students’ expectations. The expected salary after graduation from higher education institutions is positively correlated with academic performance reflected in the results of the Unified State Examination, studying full-time, having work experience. There was found indirect influence (through the results of the Unified State Examination) of school characteristics and portents’ education level on the expected salary. The overview of studies of the influence of family factors on academic performance of school pupils and higher education institutions’ students revealed that, in comparison to school education, not all factors of students’ performance are thoroughly studied. Moreover, the factors that showed significant influence on academic performance at school, did not always prove to be significant on the tertiary education level. The overview also revealed the necessity to consider distinctive characteristics of a family that can be defined by cultural and national peculiarities.
Extent of implementation, recommendations on implementation or results of implementation of the research results
The results of studies can be used by higher education institutions to form management strategies, form hiring policy, and create incentives for research productivity. Moreover, the results of studies can be used to develop and implement educational policy in terms of financial support of candidates for admission to higher education institutions.