Object of Research: nonprofit management practices.
A multidisciplinary approach has been implemented involving sociological economic, historic, philosophic and public administration perspectives. To assess empirical data mathematical methods of data analysis were used.
Empirical Base of Research
- Russian statistical data on the nonprofit sector;
- data generated by nonprofit surveys implemented by the Center for Studies of Civil Society and the Nonprofit Sector at the NRU HSE in 2007-2018, including data generated by the Monitoring of Civil Society project;
- Russian legal data bases featuring government regulation of the nonprofit sector;
- Data gathered through sociological surveys designed to identify major determinants of the effectiveness in the performance of individual functions in nonprofit management and the impact of information technologies on managing nonprofits including their interaction with their organizational environment;
- Sources from state archives of the Russian Federation, including The State Archive of the Russian Federation (Moscow); The Central History Archive of the City of Moscow; The Russian State History Archive (St.-Petersburg);
- data bases of the Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Project.
Results of Research
- Through systematizing major conceptual approaches to the analysis of functions and structures in nonprofit management it has been determined, that modern theory perceives nonprofit management as a creative process, as a resource at the disposal of an organization to implement its social mission. Among the organizational concepts that are the most useful in illuminating aspects of nonprofit management are open systems theory and neo-institutionalism.
- Among the external organizational environment factors considerably influencing nonprofit management in Russia are the level of public trust, dominant normative perceptions about informational openness (transparency) and accountability with regards to nonprofits as well as commercialization of nonprofits.
- Internationally the adaptation of nonprofit management in organizations involved in the provision of social services with government support changes practices in favor of increased professionalism, of specific managerial approaches to ensure financial sustainability and in favor of market orientation.
- To achieve greater sustainability and effectiveness of the Russian third sector international nonprofit management approaches ensuring market orientation are of particular interest.
- Major determinants of the effectiveness in the performance of individual functions in nonprofit management relate to organizational management and to project management. Sustainability goal requires introducing a vertical management structure, however effectiveness goals call for retaining sufficient horizontal structures in project implementation. Structurally nonprofits combine some features typical for market sector and the public sector, so that relevant management instruments from these two sectors can be adapted in nonprofit organizations.
- Historic retrospective analysis of management practices in Russian nonprofits in the late XIX – early XX centuries identified traditions worth to be adapted by modern Russian nonprofits. In particular this relates to the democratic practice of rotation of top managers, the practice of active interaction between central management and regional branches in membership based associations, as well as traditions in organizing general member assemblies when participation and inclusion were highly valued.
Level of implementation of the Results
The main results of this research have been published as papers in leading international English language peer-reviewed journals and Russian language academic journals listed in Scopus and Web of Science. Data and recommendationsbased on the results of this study have been incorporated in policy papers presented to relevant policy making bodies in the Russian government in 2018. Further implementation occurred in the delivery of training courses at the Department of Public Administration at the NRU HSE, Chair for Management of NGOs.