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Features, objects and events in Types of representations in the structure of cognitive tasks

Priority areas of development: humanitarian
2018
The project has been carried out as part of the HSE Program of Fundamental Studies.

Research goals: tracking down the role of representation of features, objects and events into different cognitive tasks and specific effects arising in these tasks.

Methodology: The main research method was the laboratory experiment, also the quasi-experimental and correlational designs were used. The process of the cognitive task accomplishment served as an object of study.

Empirical base of research: samples of human participants (healthy volunteers).

Results of research: The following new results were obtained. Criteria for distinguishing features that can guide human visual attention are formulated. A series of experiments has shown that in the long-term memory, the memory of an object is represented as a set of independent features of different levels of complexity (including the object’s states). Such features may be retrieved independently of each other of even produce wrong recombinations. No evidence was found for the hypothesis that verbal encoding (naming) of features critical for object categorization results in the increment of sensitivity at the retrieval from the long-term memory. It was revealed that update of the verbal emotional information in the working memory is more effective than the update of the emotionally neutral information. Another experiment has shown that the recognition of sad faces takes less time in participants with low dispositional sadness. A reduction in functional fixedness effect was revealed when participants were asked to create a list of objects that possess the main functional attribute of the target object, but to a less degree, before they perform a creativity task on a target object. The most important result of the whole project is the elaboration and clarification of theoretical models of the levels of information representation across the variety of cognitive tasks from simple perceptive to creative thinking. 

Level of implementation,  recommendations on implementation or outcomes of the implementation of the results: The project was essentially fundamental and did not imply any direct implementation of its results.

Publications:


Utochkin I. S., Brady T. F. Independent storage of different features of real-world objects in long-term memory // Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. 2020. Vol. 149. No. 3. P. 530-549. doi
Фаликман М. В., Уточкин И. С., Марков Ю. А., Тюрина Н. А. Нисходящая регуляция зрительного поиска: есть ли она у детей? // В кн.: Когнитивная наука в Москве: новые исследования. Материалы конференции 19 июня 2019 г. / Под общ. ред.: Е. В. Печенкова, М. В. Фаликман. М. : Буки Веди, 2019. С. 513-517.
Яголковский С. Р. Групповое творчество: классические и современные исследовательские подходы // В кн.: Научное образование / Science Education: сборник статей участников симпозиума по проблемам развития одаренности детей и юношества в образовании / Под общ. ред.: А. С. Обухов. М., Якутск : Библиотека журнала «Исследователь/Researcher», 2018. С. 72-80.
Wolfe J. M., Utochkin I. S. What is a preattentive feature? // Current Opinion in Psychology. 2019. Vol. 29. P. 19-26. doi
Yagolkovskiy S. R., Медведев Б. Stimulation of individual creativity: Semantic priming through naming objects loosens functional fixedness within idea generation // Plos One. 2019
Валуева Е. А., Лаптева Е. М., Овсянникова В. В. Оценка эффективности программы развития эмоциональных способностей у школьников старших классов // Современная зарубежная психология. 2018. Т. 7. № 2. С. 70-79. doi