Goal of research
The immediate purpose of the work in 2018 was to update the survey methodology and conduct specialized surveys of business enterprises and the population in Russia in order to assess their engagement with generation of innovation.
In terms of population survey, the methodology for measuring innovative behavior of the population was based on the recommendations of the Directorate of Science, Technology and Industry of the OECD, the European Commission (Eurobarometer and Innobarometer) and the US National Science Foundation, which ensures international comparability of the data collected. The developed system of indicators reflects various aspects of innovative behavior of the population. A survey questionnaire was harmonised with international projects, including questions aimed at assessing the engagement of the population with science and innovation.
In terms of assessment the innovative activity of enterprises and analysis of their behavioral strategies, updated statistical, sociological and analytical tools were used. Changes were made in the methodology and methods for analyzing the innovative behavior of manufacturing enterprises.
Empirical base of research
As part of the study in innovative behavior of population in 2018, empirical data were collected on an expanded sample of the population aged 18 to 65 years old as part of the specialized module of The Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey – Higher School of Economics (RLMS-HSE).
As part of the study in innovative behavior of enterprises in 2018, data were collected on a stratified sample with representativeness control based on the size of the enterprise (number of employees, type of economic activity). The form of observation was a formalized survey (questioning) of heads of organizations.
As part of the study in innovative behavior of population results include systematization and review of the existing theoretical approaches to the study of public attitudes towards science, technology and innovation, including those based on the analysis of international studies in science and society interactions. Due to the rise of digitalization of everyday life, together with the increasing interest of mass media to the topic of innovative development, most individuals today do realize the positive influence of innovations on social and economic development of the country. The interest to innovative products has also intensified. The Monitoring demonstrates that public involvement in issues related to the progress of science, technology and innovation is mostly a result of socialization and an important element of the modern lifestyle. To develop the theoretical foundations for the analysis of the innovative behavior of population, it is suggested to focus on social attitudes of various social groups towards science, technology and innovation as well as engagement of individual in generation and dissemination of innovation. The results of this study allow empirical verification of concepts used to describe integration of the population into innovative activity.
As part of the study in innovative behavior of enterprises the theoretical considerations for monitoring of innovation activities explore the potential of innovation surveys of enterprises to address the challenges of technological modernization measurement. It operationalizes the sectoral technology upgrading as a process of shift towards more sophisticated innovation strategies. This allows capturing the upgrading trends using the firm-level taxonomies of innovation behavior. Given the cross-sectional firm-level data on Russian industry, the sectoral pathways are constructed that allow classifying the dynamics as upgrading or downgrading. The results strongly support the emerging theoretical and case-driven understanding of the upgrading as highly heterogeneous and context-specific process. The proposed indicators may be applied in a broad range of countries that have the practice of the Oslo Manual-driven innovation surveys and advocate the importance of regular monitoring exercises.