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Values and identities, their internal structure and external connections

Priority areas of development: sociology
2019
Department: Laboratory for Comparative Studies in Mass Consciousness

Goal of research

Revealing internal interrelations characterizing social identities and values, factors affecting these interrelations, and the ways values and identities affect other phenomena of mass consciousness and behavior

Methodology

The main methodology of achieving the research objectives is the statistical and econometric analysis of the international and Russian survey data from the available databases.

Empirical base of research

The research is based on the data from the 4th and 8th waves of the European Social Survey (collected in 2008 and 2016 respectively), the data of the

International Social Survey Programme collected in 2013), and the data of the Life in Transition Survey collected in 2016.

Results of research

  1. It was discovered that the indicators of commitment to one’s country, a region within the country, a specific city, town, or village, as well as the continent where the country is located, are positively intercorrelated. The dependence of the commitment to one’s country on the country’s level of economic development was found to be nonlinear, namely quadratic: the commitment is higher in the countries with the highest and the lowest per capita GDP and the lowest, in the countries with the average GDP pc (Russia among them). It can be due to the lower benefits from the belonging to a country with an average level of economic development compared to more affluent counties and lower costs of emigration tan in the poor countries.

  2. The research contains a description of new kinds of interaction between the influences of various basic values on social attitudes and behavior. The values of Conservation, comprising the dependence from the social norms and opinions of others, is found to weaken the effects of the value of Benevolence (taking care of people and nature) on prosocial attitudes and behavior. The value of Openness to change, comprising independence, activeness, and self-reliance, enhances these effects. Based on these results, we believe the values of Conservation and Openness to act as potential moderators in relation to other internal disposition by weakening of boosting their effects.

  3. The research shows that the importance ascribed to the democratic political system is stronger in the populations of the postsocialist countries combining more democratic regimes and lower economic achievements. Apparently, the populations of the more democratic postsocialist countries are more strongly aware of democracy as a country’s advantage, which may compensate economic underperformance and give a chance to overcome it.

  4. The research shows the decrease (when controlled for respondents’ sociodemographic characteristics, including their incomes and evaluations of the welfare of the recipients of social benefits) in Russians’ expectations from the state with regard to guaranteeing decent living for the old and the unemployed and providing childcare for working parents. It might be related to the earlier revealed general shift of expectations from the reliance on the state towards self-reliance.

Level of implementation,  recommendations on implementation or outcomes of the implementation of the results

The research results were used:

1) in the lecture course “Data Analysis and Vizualization in R” taught to the fourth year bachelor’s degree students of the department of Sociology of the Faculty of Social Sciences of the NRU HSE, and also in supervising undergraduate and graduate students’ research for their final qualification works and theses;

2) in the public lectures and presentations of the project participants; in a number of the project participants’ publications and presentation in Russian mass media.

Publications:


Салмина А. А. Социальная политика, in: Российская экономика: настоящее и перспективы после реформ. Курс лекций. Москва : Издательский дом НИУ ВШЭ, 2019. С. 151-173. 
Grigoryan L., Bai Xuechunzi, Durante F., Fiske S. T., Fabrykant M., Hakobjanyan A., Javakhishvili N., Kadirov K., Kotova M., Makashvili A., Maloku E., Morozova-Larina O., Mullabaeva N., Samekin A., Verbilovich V., Yahiiaiev I. Stereotypes as Historical Accidents: Images of Social Class in Post-communist versus Capitalist Societies // Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. 2020. Vol. 46. No. 6. P. 927-943. doi
Remizova A., Rudnev M. Understanding the Moral Attitudes Scale in International Surveys: an Exploratory Study / OSF. Series SocArXiv. "Social and Behavioral Sciences". 2019. No. hr86y.