Development of systems, technologies and standards for the Internet of Things and high-speed wireless communication
Goal of research
- Development of lightweight cryptographic functions for devices with limited computing power, designed to ensure the security of the Internet of things (IoT) systems.
- Development of algorithms and standards for ultra-reliable real-time data exchange, mass machine interaction and efficient using of spectrum in 5G networks.
- Development of a mechanism for end-to-end symbolic addressing for Internet of Things devices, providing direct interaction between devices regardless of the allocated technical IP-addresses while maintaining the availability of devices
Within the framework of this project, approaches to designing of public-key cryptosystems based on error-correction codes were reviewed and investigated. The obtained results lay the theoretical foundations of code cryptography and make it possible to talk about the construction of asymmetric lightweight cryptography algorithms applicable for use on low-power devices.
One of the most promising methods for increasing the security level of solutions for the Internet of Things is the use of blockchain techniques for managing keys, as well as processing all incoming and outgoing requests from end devices. However, the existing blockchain solutions are based on classical cryptography algorithms and, in the case of a large number of users, these algorithms require large computational power. All this makes it necessary to adapt existing solutions to the problems of the Internet of Things. One of the recently proposed approaches is the LBS solution, in which it is proposed to use lightweight cryptography algorithms to calculate hash functions and establish consensus, as well as performing complex computational operations on the most computationally powerful network nodes.
Today, we are on the verge of actively introducing 5G technology in everyday’s life, including how to use it in economics and industry (machine-to-machine interaction, industrial Internet of Things, applications with low latency data processing requirements (URLLC) in critical areas of technology and infrastructure), and the use of this technology stack in everyday life (various multimedia applications, virtual reality VR, video streaming, ultra fast mobile Internet). Already, developers of technologies and equipment for 5G are forced to take into account the very rapid growth in bandwidth requirements for wireless networks as well as the rapidly growing need for user access required for the Internet of Things (IoT). Thus, already today the fifth generation (5G) networks are faced with the problems of supporting large-scale heterogeneous data traffic. Obviously, in perspective (5G + / 6G) data transmission, processing and storage networks, these problems will be further aggravated.
Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA), which was recently proposed for third-generation projects (3GPP-LTE-A), is a promising technology for solving the aforementioned problems in future generation networks by placing several users inside the same block/cell of orthogonal resources. This means that a group of users (or devices) can simultaneously transmit data to the base station, without using sharing (time / frequency) of the common resource, which on the one hand simplifies the transmission equipment, and on the other, significantly increases the throughput of the communication line. Thus, a significant increase in bandwidth utilization can be achieved compared to traditional orthogonal multiple access (OMA) techniques. This circumstance has become the reason for active research, which is reviewed in the report. Due to the complexity of implementation and the fundamentally new requirements for receiving equipment, this technology is very poorly represented in 5G, but in fact it is the main (or probably the only) way to increase the volume of reliably transmitted traffic in networks that will replace 5G (5G + / 6G), active discussion concept which will begin in the very near future.
Empirical base of research
The empirical base of the research is based on an analysis of 169 publications attached to the final report as references. The distribution of these publications by research topics is as follows:
- 17 publications devoted to research in the field of symbolic addressing, including one for the Internet of Things
- 79 publications devoted to research in the field of lightweight cryptography algorithms, their implementation, comparison and fields of applicability
- 73 publications devoted to the study of non-orthogonal multiple-access methods.
The publications used in the research can be divided into the following types:
- Articles in national and foreign peer-reviewed scientific journals
- Articles included in proceedings of international and Russian conferences
- International standards
- Professional dictionaries
- Articles published on the Internet
- Technical reports
- Reviews and surveys
In addition, the report was prepared using the results of computer simulation of non-orthogonal multiple access systems, coded modulations, as well as decoding algorithms.
Results of research
As a result of scientific research, the following main results were achieved:
For the task of researching lightweight cryptography:
- An analytical report has been prepared that provides a comparative analysis of existing low-resource cryptography algorithms: block and stream ciphers, symmetric and asymmetric cryptographic primitives, authentication algorithms, hash functions, algorithms for generating insertions, etc. Scenarios for using algorithms and their applicability are discussed
- Promising areas for the development of low-resource cryptography, including post-quantum one, are proposed.
- An article has been prepared on the use of low-resource code cryptography on devices with low power consumption
As part of the task of researching non-orthogonal multiple access methods:
- An analytical report on the analysis of coded modulations for non-orthogonal multiple access systems has been prepared
- An analytical report (with the results of simulation) on code and signal-code structures for data networks with a high density of nodes has been prepared
- Analytical estimates of the throughput of multi-user data transmission channels are proposed
- New coded modulations for resolving collisions in multi-user channels were suggested
- The simulation of the proposed code structures was conducted
- An article “Study of the performance of codes on the Varshamov–Gilbert bound for a non-orthogonal multiple access system” was prepared and accepted for publication
- Promising areas of research in the field of non-orthogonal multiple access were proposed
As part of the task of symbolically addressing IoT devices:
- An analytical report on the analysis of existing approaches to addressing Internet of things devices and trends in the development of symbolic addressing on the Internet has been prepared
- An analytical report on the development of a symbolic addressing model, including the architecture of the solution and the necessary interaction protocols has been prepared
- A draft of the standard for symbolic addressing on the Internet of things has been prepared
- Promising areas of research in the field of symbolic addressing have been proposed
Level of implementation, recommendations on implementation or outcomes of the implementation of the results
At present, MIEM HSE is actively working on the researches in transport coding methods and their applications for real scenario. It is assumed that transport coding can be used as a basic protocol for transmitting information on the Internet of Things.
The results presented in the report show the promise of this area, in addition, we noted the main areas of development of this technology, as well as proposed coded modulations that allow resolving collisions that occur when receiving data from a large number of users. The resulting backlog allows us to further develop the direction of building multiple access systems for communication networks of future generations, which will allow a large number of users / devices to exchange data under conditions of limited bandwidth and a large number of users transmitting data both to the base station and to each other. Undoubtedly, this approach will be developed in 5G + / 6G systems.
Suggestions for implementation:
- Creation of a universal protocol (standard) for the Internet of Things networks (based on transport coding)
- Development of a library of asymmetric lightweight algorithms. Development of a blockchain system based on lightweight cryptography
- Development of a library of post-quantum cryptographic algorithms
- Development of coded modulations for 6G systems
- Development of an integrated system for the transmission, protection and compression of information based on LDPC codes
- Study of steganographic methods for 5G+ | 6G systems