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Regular version of the site

Measuring the Development of Science and Technology: Theoretical and Applied Aspects

The project has been carried out as part of the HSE Program of Fundamental Studies.

The research includes a broad range of topics centered around methods and tools for measuring the development of science and technology. In addition, the applicability of these methods and tools to the Russian NIS is also one fo the subjects of the research, which has been structured in 4 core projects:
a) an overview and analysis of new strategy documents and approaches (policy mix), new S&T policy tools proposed by international organisations and new forms of international collaboration in the S&T system;
b) development of a methodology for Foresight evaluation;
c) elaboration of the potential of bibliometric indicators for measuring the performance of Russian researchers;
d) identification of areas of Russia’s technological specialisation on the basis of patent analysis.

a) Strategy documents and STI policy approaches (policy mix) developed by international organisations and countries recognized as innovation leaders in the post-crisis years were reviewed. The research focused on innovations in the ICT sector (with the example of e-government) and eco-innovations which were examined with regard to the new paradigm of “green” economic growth. Within the “green growth” paradigm, an overview and analysis of new S&T policy instruments proposed by international organisations were carried out.

The research included the following sources and data: research papers in Russian and foreign peer-reviewed journals, strategic and regulatory national and international documents (i.e. laws, international agreements), results of studies conducted by HSE and other research organisations, annual and environmental corporate reports, statistical data of the Russian and foreign statistical agencies (i.e. Eurostat) and international organisations (i.e. OECD, International Telecommunication Union).
In conclusion, scenarios for advancing user-focused e-government practices were developed. Recommendations were made for overcoming measurement constraints caused by the limited availability of internationally comparable data on the demand-side, e-government and for the diversification of government support to technology platforms treated as special mechanisms of public-private partnerships in science, technology and innovation system. Additionally, factors favorable for the development of green innovations in the Russian private sector were identified.

b) The second research topic aimed at developing a complex methodological approach for the evaluation of national Foresight-studies’ effectiveness.
Existing literature with regard to the theory and practices of Foresight evaluation was examined.  The review showed that there is no coherent methodology suitable for the evaluation of each type of Foresight study yet, only separate criteria and methods have been developed and applied thus far. The conventional approaches to evaluation shaped through theory and practice of project management were investigated as well. This allowed the identification of necessary lessons to be learnt by Foresight evaluation from project assessment.

The research resulted in a step-by-step methodology for Foresight evaluation, consisting of the following six steps: 1) testing if the project to be evaluated could be considered as a Foresight study; 2) describing the main characteristics of the project; 3) assessing the project according to evaluation topics (objectives, client, project team, stakeholders, methods, process, effects, output and impact); 4) analysing effectiveness and efficiency of the project; 5) conducting the SWOT analysis and 6) elaborating summary conclusions and providing recommendations.

The application of the proposed methodology can become a driver to the development of a complex Foresight evaluation methodology that contributes to making the assessment procedure more standardized, evaluation results less complicated and hence more comparable. The proposed methodology can be used for the evaluation and benchmarking of Russian and foreign Foresight-studies. Moreover its results provide important information on the efficiency of realised projects for policy-makers that give them an opportunity to make better-grounded decisions on further work in relevant areas.

c) The third research field focuses on the effects of publication language and country of origin on the international scientific visibility of Russia using the Web of Science. Russia is of particular interest in respect of this topic due to the existence of many combinations of national journals and languages of publications (namely Russian and English, including translated journals). The analysis points to the conclusion that the production of original English-language journals is a more efficient strategy of internationalisation than the translation of domestic Russian language journals. If a country aims to maximise the international visibility of its scientific work then the efforts should go into the promotion of publications in reputed English language journals.

d) The fourth research field explores the competitive positions of Russia on the basis of patent analysis. The study compared the behaviour of Russian companies in foreign patenting against the behaviour of other applicants with the participation of individual Russian inventors. The study uses Rospatent data and European Patent Office databases analysing the dynamics of change over 3 periods: 1996-1999, 2000-2003 and 2004-2007 to provide representative data and to eliminate random fluctuations in patenting dynamics.

The relative technology advantage index revealed strengths of both groups in the fields of "nuclear physics", "weapons" and "metallurgy", e.g. showing that these are the fields of technological advantage of Russian companies, individuals and inventors, while mismatches were detected in the fields "medical", "inorganic chemicals", "health", "engines", "optics, photo", "bio-chemistry" and "electricity”. 
The findings create a valuable background for the basic research studies, as well as for the purposes of science and technology policy (identification of technological priorities), and for various applied studies (analysis of the Comparative Advantage based in the international trade data).

The following foreign researchers have participated in the research:
1)  M. Boden, the Institute for Prospective Technological Studies, Spain (http://ipts.jrc.ec.europa.eu)
2)  H. Pitlik, the Austrian Institute of Economic Research (WIFO) (http://www.wifo.ac.at/wwa/jsp/index.jsp?id=1363&typeid=9&language=2&fid=23916)
3)  L. Georghiou, the University of Manchester, the UK (http://www.manchester.ac.uk/research/mbs/Luke.georghiou/personaldetails)
4)  Y. Gingras, the University of Quebec, Canada (http://www.histoire.uqam.ca/professeurs/index.php?id=58 )
5)  J. Cassingena Harper, the National Council for Science and Technology, Malta (http://ec.europa.eu/research/sd/pdf/rd4sd/harper-cv.pdf)
6)  K. Cuhls, Fraunhofer Institute forSystems and Innovation Research, Germany (http://www.isi.fraunhofer.de/isi-en/v/mitarbeiter/cu.php?WSESSIONID=a18227ea9bb 039c5254354e19d2a7db9)
7)  J. Calof, the University of Ottawa, Canada (http://www.telfer.uottawa.ca/en/professor-directory/professors/calof-jonathan)
8)  V. Lopez-Bassols, OECD, France (http://www.oecd.org)
9)  L. Auriol, OECD, France (http://www.oecd.org)
10) R. Popper, the University of Manchester, the UK (http://www.manchester.ac.uk/research/mbs/rafael.popper)
11) O. Saritas, the University of Manchester, the UK (http://www.manchester.ac.uk/research/mbs/ozcan.saritas
12) R. Seidl da Fonseca, the UNIDO, Austria (https://www.unido.org)
13) Shyam Upadhyaya, the UNIDO, Austria(https://www.unido.org)
14) K.  Schuch, Centre for Social Innovation, Austria