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Innovative forms of interaction between cultural heritage and creative industries

Priority areas of development: economics
2012
The project has been carried out as part of the HSE Program of Fundamental Studies.

The objects of the research project are cultural institutions and creative industry organisations. Our main aims are:
(1) to consider the institutional, economic and cultural aspects of interaction between cultural heritage centres and the creative industries, and to search for innovative forms of such interaction, (2) to facilitate a synthesis of Russian and foreign experience in using entrepreneurial potential in creative industries, (3) to devise a concept for modernising cultural policy and regional development strategies in the context of new conditions of cultural development, and (4) to identify the particular features of innovative forms of interaction between cultural heritage and the creative industries.

Within the project we applied qualitative research methods, conducted surveys of consumers and producers of cultural goods and services as well as carrying out expert polls. In the theoretical analysis, we focussed on systematizing approaches in order to develop a methodology for studying the interaction between cultural heritage and creative industries. As part of the information basis of our research we studied methods for evaluating activities undertaken by cultural heritage institutions. We also collected, analyzed and classified factual and empirical material in a variety of practices on the interaction between creative industries and cultural heritage. We obtained and analysed empirical data on building relationships between cultural heritage and creative industries, entrepreneurial potential in creative industries, the distinct features of consumer behavior in cultural heritage institutions, and on the formation of gastronomic brands within the interaction of cultural heritage and creative industries.

Our research is unique in the way we created a conceptual framework in the field of interaction between cultural heritage and creative industries. We identified and described key practices of interaction based on the use of the innovative potential of culture, we studided characteristics peculiar to the creative industries and cultural heritage, and developed a concept for modernizing cultural policy and regional development strategies in the context of new conditions for culture.

As a result of the study, we have formulated theoretical and methodological principles of the interaction between cultural heritage and creative industries, we have analysed in detail the practices within this interaction, both in Russia and internationally, and we have developed proposals for strengthening cooperation. The most significant results of the study are presented below.
  1. A study of the theoretical and methodological problems of interaction between cultural heritage and creative industries, including a definition of culture’s role in the contemporary socio-economic dimension, the position of creative industries in economic and socio-cultural development, the allocation of core areas of interaction between cultural heritage and creative industries, the development of approaches to building a model of innovative interaction; the development of principles of systematic innovation in the field of culture in general and of the networking of cultural heritage and creative industries, and identifying opportunities for the development of creative businesses and creative clusters. Within the analysis of theoretical and methodological issues of the study we considered the conceptual framework; we defined the position of creative industries in the socio-economic transformation as well as their role in the innovation process; we sytematised the features of the cultural sphere as an object of socio-economic analysis; we described the basic methodological approaches to the study of culture, in the current theory in terms of an economic evaluation; we systematized common current methods of data collection and analysis, applied to the study of culture as a social and economic phenomenon. Our research results proved that studying the relationship between economy and culture in the current economic valuation models requires the election of not only quantitative, but also qualitative indicators.
  2. Within the research project we considered in detail the opportunities for cooperation between cultural heritage and creative industries. Our findings are based on the results of an expert survey held in St. Petersburg in 2012, which allowed us to identify and describe the major problems in how they function and to determine the direction and organization of interaction between them. The results that made it possible to define the meaning and role of cultural heritage and creative industries in the development of a destination as a centre of tourism (St. Petersburg, for example) are of particular importance.
  3. We analysed ways to apply evaluation methods to cultural heritage institutions, aiming to predict the attendance of public museums (the Federal State Institution of Culture and Art "The Central Naval Museum" and its branches, for example). Predictions on visits to a museum are made on the basis of statistical data and analysis of particular museums. We also identify opportunities to use a cluster approach to strengthen interaction between cultural heritage and creative industries (e.g. event-clusters) and  describe models and tools of social and cultural partnership, and trends and resources of cultural events in St. Petersburg.
  4. The report presents the results of a study on the potential of business education in the field of creative industries based on a careful analysis of Russian art schools and previous research made in Finland, Estonia, and Latvia. We examined and confirmed the importance of business education as a basis for the development of the creative industries as well as cultivating entrepreneurship within them. We conducted an analysis of the characteristics of training and encouraging entrepreneurship in the creative industries in these countries, and in our survey we found that university students in St. Petersburg had plenty of entrepreneurial potential in comparison with students from other countries.
  5. We conducted our analysis of the features of interaction between cultural heritage and creative industries on the basis of a study of interaction between academic musical culture and the creative industries in the light of consumer preferences. The same applies for our analysis of the features of museum festivals, of gastronomic heritage and cultural tourism. We present the results of our analysis of consumer behavior of visitors to cultural heritage institutions (based on a survey of visitors to the St. Petersburg Academic Philharmonic Concert Hall) and the results of the study of culinary brands within the interaction between cultural heritage and creative industries. We also present a classification of gastronomic brands, the peculiarities of gastronomic brands' formation depending on the type of community, and identify preconditions of gastronomic brand formation in St. Petersburg.
  6. Within the research project we conducted a number of surveys to form the empirical basis of the study. They are: an expert survey in the organization and management of culture, a survey of visitors to the cultural event "Night of Museums – 2012", and of the museum managers involved, a survey of art school students, and a survey of visitors to the St. Petersburg Academic Philharmonic. We also used a study of data on the development of individual industries and cultural organizations in St. Petersburg as an empirical base.
Based on our analysis, the report describes innovative approaches to promote interaction between cultural heritage centres and the creative industries in Russian culture management, it describes an innovative strategy for cultural development and for improving the quality of life following  St. Petersburg as an example. The authors propose the introduction of a balanced scorecard for cultural organizations management, and the use of creative practices in organizing public events, such as the "Night of Museums", as one of the most promising areas of innovation development.

Publications:


Хорева Л. В., Матецкая М. В. Взаимодействие организаций культурного наследия и творческих индустрий: импульс развития сферы культуры (по материалам экспертного опроса) // В кн.: Культурное наследие и творческие индустрии: время, место, действие. Сборник трудов сотрудников Лаборатории экономики культуры Санкт-Петербургского филиала Национального исследовательского университета "Высшая школа экономики" / Науч. ред.: В. Э. Гордин. СПб. : Левша-Санкт-Петербург, 2012. Гл. 3. С. 90-109.
Хорева Л. В. Взаимодействие организаций культурного наследия и творческих индустрий: импульс развития сферы культуры (по материалам экспертного опроса) Гл. 3. С. 90-109.
Иванова Ю. В. Творческие индустрии как новый фактор экономического и социокультурного развития // В кн.: Труды экономического и социально-гуманитарного факультета РГГМУ Вып. 7. СПб. : Астерион, 2013. С. 152-167.
Dedova M. Development of Public Cultural Services Management: Study of the Night of Museums, in: Current Trends in Public Sector Research. Proceedings of the 17th International Conference, Šlapanice, 17-18 January 2013. Brno : Masaryk University, 2013. P. 21-28.
Гордин В. Э. Факторы развития творческих индустрий Северного измерения. Factors for Northern Dimension creative industries development // В кн.: Развитие партнерства в творческих индустриях Северного Измерения. Developing partnerships in creative industries of Northern Dimension / Отв. ред.: И. Н. Кизилова. СПб. : Профи-Центр, 2013. С. 5-7.