2. Research Purpose: A complex study of electroencephalographic, magnetoencephalographic, and polygraphic correlates of the processes attention, perception, and decision making in the situation of choice between alternative decisions in conditions of a continuous flow of incoming information as well as an analysis of concurrent psychophysiological manifestation of emotions capable of influencing decision making. The following tasks were set:
- to study brain activity in conditions of choice between alternative responses under impeded decision making in conditions of a continuous flow of incoming information and a feature conjunction;
- to study brain activity during implicit perceptive decisions in conditions of a continuous flow of incoming information;
- to study electrophysiological indices of human responses to emotionally salient stimuli as a model for neuromarketing studies.
3. Empirical Base of the Research: The research included recording and analysis of the electroencephalogram under binary choice in conditions of impeded decision making; recording and analysis of the magnetoencephalogram in conditions of implicit decision making concerning the presence or absence of a visual illusion; as well as recording and analysis of the electroencephalogram during perception of emotionally salient stimuli. Three experiments were carried out; psychophysiological indices of brain activity were recorded in 74 volunteers recruited from higher educational institutions in Moscow.
4. Research Results: For the first time, we have identified electrophysiological correlates of attentional lapses leading to incorrect decisions or failures in decision making, manifested as a significant increase in the evoked potential P2 amplitude. This result evidences that at the preattentive stage of perception; in situations of attentional lapses information processing terminates prematurely, which can be linked to a reallocation of cognitive brain resources from the explicit task set before the participant to the implicit task of internal information processing. For the first time, we demonstrated the relation of encephalographic correlates of task performance related of feature conjunction and impeded decision making – evoked potential N1 and P2 amplitude and latency – to several individual dimensions of temperament; most clearly this relation was evident during errors, the fact evidencing the dependence of attentional lapses upon individual typological differences, mediated through brain activity. For the first time in adult participants, we have demonstrated the early inverted illusion effect under Gestalt perception. In detail, we described psychophysiological manifestations of positive and negative emotions in the indices of brain activity in all frequency ranges of the electroencephalogram, as well as in polygraphic parameters.
5. Implementation of the Research Results: The results of the present study broaden the current fundamental understanding of the psychophysiology of cognitive processes and lay a foundation for the development of practical methods in the areas of psychodiagnostics and neuromarketing.
6. International partners: Norman M. Weinberger, PhD, Research Professor, University of California at Irvine, USA, http://www.faculty.uci.edu/profile.cfm?faculty_id=2688