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Regular version of the site

The Psychological Mechanisms of Solving Human Cognitive Tasks

Priority areas of development: law, humanitarian
2012
Department: Laboratory for Cognitive Research
The project has been carried out as part of the HSE Program of Fundamental Studies.

The project was implemented within the framework of the HSE's Basic Research Programme.

1. Research Object: Human performance on various cognitive tasks.

2. Objective:
To reveal psychological mechanisms of human cognition; to develop and to test specific research methods that create new opportunities to analyse factors and determinants influencing the performance of various cognitive tasks.

3. Empirical Base of the Research:
a heterogeneous sample of subjects, selected in accordance with the aims and objectives of the research. The experimental method as well as inventories have been used in the research.

4. Research Results:
The most significant results could be broadly divided into three groups, comprising (i) perceptual and attentional tasks, (ii) intellectual problem solving, and (iii) emotional and social cognition. The 'dead zone of attention' phenomenon has been demonstrated to be prone to metacognitive regulation to a certain degree, however, this type of regulation hardly influences attentional distribution across the visual scene. The abstract statistical representation of the properties of visual objects across the visual field guides attention in the visual search for singletones, the visual search being subject to the principle of “statistical power”. The left and right visual hemifield asymmetry in the visual search for a letter stimulus within words and nonwords has been revealed. The mental representation of Russian monosemic, polysemic, and homonymic words has been studied, revealing similarity in the representation of monosemic words and homonyms and supporting the hypothesis of the universal representation across languages. In a study of categorization, it has been shown that words might spontaneously initiate generalization and narrow the amount of relevant features necessary for the categorization. The aspects of the representation of the problem have been revealed. They allow problem solvers to distinguish between tasks and to find a solution. The influence of joint activity and task monotony upon one's individual creativity has been demonstrated. Two aspects in the recognitiion of emotional stimuli have been revealed, namely accuracy and sensitivity, with accuracy being more stimulus-specific, and sensitivity more universal. The congruency effect between emotional information (threat) processing and one's personal anxiety has been obtained. Contextual and individual factors influencing the awareness of one's social stereotypes have been revealed.

5. Implementation of the research results:
The current study on fundamental issues of human cognition was exploratory in nature and was not intended to direct the implementation of its results. However, the results can used in a range of application areas, from cognitive design and the usability of visual displays to the teaching of formal subjects and stimulating the creativity of professionals working in different fields.

6. International partners:
none.

Publications:


Люсин Д. В., Пермогорский М. С. Распознавание эмоциональной окраски информации: проблема универсальности // Психология. Журнал Высшей школы экономики. 2013. Т. 10. № 3. С. 86-97.
Пермогорский М. С., Люсин Д. В. Существует ли универсальная способность распознавания эмоциональной окраски стимулов разного типа? // В кн.: Личность как предмет классической и неклассической психологии: материалы XIII Международных чтений памяти Л.С. Выготского / Под общ. ред.: В. Кудрявцев. М. : РГГУ, 2012. С. 178-183.